Balduina uniflora

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Balduina uniflora
Balduina uniflora AFP.jpg
Photo by Altas of Florida Plants Database
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta - Flowering plants
Class: Magnoliopsida - Dicots
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae
Genus: Balduina
Species: B. uniflora
Binomial name
Balduina uniflora
Natural range of Balduina uniflora from USDA NRCS Plants Database.

Common Names: Savanna Honeycomb-head; Yellow Balduina;[1] Oneflower Honeycombhead[2]

Taxonomic Notes

Synonyms: Endorima uniflora (Nuttall) Rafinesque [1][3]

Varieties: none.[3]


Balduina uniflora is a dioecious perennial that grows as a forb/herb,[2] possessses fleshy roots[4] that have a mean depth of 15.75 cm and porosity of 0.0%,[5] and reproduces vegetatively from root stocks. This species can reach heights of 0.7 - 1.0 m. When in bloom there are 1 - 3 heads, each with 8 - 22 yellow ray flowers that are 5.5 - 8.2 mm long and 1 - 2 mm wide.[4]


Balduina uniflora is endemic to the longleaf pine range[6] found from eastern Louisiana, eastward throughout the panhandle of Florida and southeastern Georgia, and northward to southeastern North Carolina.[2]



This species is found in wet pine savannas, pine flatwoods,[1] and the margins of pitcher-plant bogs.[4] It has also been observed in moist sand roadsides, wet peaty soil in pocosin, swamps, and mesic disturbed sites.[7] B. uniflora does not respond to soil disturbance by clearcutting and chopping in North Florida flatwoods forests.[8]

Balduina uniflora is an indicator species for the Panhandle Seepage Savannas community type as described in Carr et al. (2010).[9]

Associated species: Liatris sp., Sporobolus sp., Andropogon sp., Schizachyrium sp., Eupatorium sp., Pinus palustris, Habenaria ciliaris, Lilium catesbaei, Eragrostis elliottii, Eriocaulon decangulare, Rhynchospora sp., Bigelowia sp., Hypericum sp., Serenoa repens, Xyris flexuosa, Sabatia brevifolia, Kalmia hirsute, Polygala lutea, Sorghastrum secundum, Quercus pumila, Seymeria cassioides, Helianthus heterophyllus, Juncus sp., Ilex glabra, Rhexia sp., Marshallia graminifolia, Pityopsis sp., and Carex sp.[7]


In the southeastern and mid-Atlantic United States, flowering occurs from late July through September.[1] Another, study reports flowering starting in June.[4] It has been observed to flower from November to Janurary, March and April, and July through September, with peak inflorescence in September.[10]

Seed dispersal

This species is thought to be dispersed by wind. [11]

Fire ecology

In Mississippi pine barrens, flowering increased significantly from one year after a burn into the second year following a burn.[12]


It attracts bumblebees and butterflies which pollinates it.[13] Pollen grains are 40-45 µm in diameter.[4]

Herbivory and toxicology

Henslow's sparrows were observed to eat B. uniflora as a part of their diet.[14]

Conservation, cultivation, and restoration=

Cultural use

Photo Gallery

References and notes

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Weakley AS (2015) Flora of the Southern and Mid-Atlantic States. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Herbarium.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 USDA NRCS (2016) The PLANTS Database (, 26 January 2018). National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC 27401-4901 USA.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Weakley, A.S. 2015. Flora of the southern and mid-atlantic states. Working Draft of 21 May 2015. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Parker ES, Jones SB (1975) A systematic study of the genus Balduina (Compositae, Heliantheae). Brittonia 27(4):355-361.
  5. Brewer JS, Baker DJ, Nero AS, Patterson AL, Robers RS, Turner LM (2011) Carnivoory in plants as a beneficial trait in wetlands. Aquatic Botany 94:62-70.
  6. Sorrie, B. A. and A. S. Weakley 2001. Coastal Plain valcular plant endemics: Phytogeographic patterns. Castanea 66: 50-82.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Florida State University Robert K. Godfrey Herbarium database. URL: Last accessed: March 2019. Collectors: Loran C. Anderson, L. E. Arnold, Wendy Casper, A. F. Clewell, A. H. Curtiss, M. Darst, Donald Davidson, M. Davis, R. K. Godfrey, Floyd Griffith, Bruce Hansen, JoAnn Hansen, Ann F. Johnson, Lisa Keppner, R. Kral, R. A. Norris, Katelin D. Pearson, R. E. Perdue, Jr., Paul R. Redfearn, Jr., Bob Rice, E. L. Tyson, D. B. Ward, Rodie White, and Lovett E. Williams. States and Counties: Florida: Bay, Calhoun, Duval, Escambia, Franklin, Jackson, Leon, Nassau, Okaloosa, Santa Rosa, St Johns, Volusia, Wakulla, Walton, and Washington. Georgia: Grady, Thomas, and Worth.
  8. Moore, W.H., B.F. Swindel, and W.S. Terry. (1982). Vegetative Response to Clearcutting and Chopping in a North Florida Flatwoods Forest. Journal of Range Management 35(2):214-218.
  9. Carr, S.C., K.M. Robertson, and R.K. Peet. 2010. A vegetation classification of fire-dependent pinelands of Florida. Castanea 75:153-189.
  10. Nelson, G. PanFlora: Plant data for the eastern United States with emphasis on the Southeastern Coastal Plains, Florida, and the Florida Panhandle. Accessed: 26 MAR 2019
  11. Kirkman, L. Katherine. Unpublished database of seed dispersal mode of plants found in Coastal Plain longleaf pine-grasslands of the Jones Ecological Research Center, Georgia.
  12. Hinman SE, Brewer JS (2007) Responses of two frequently-burned wet pine savannas to an extended period without fire. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 134(4):512-526.
  13. Pitts-Singer TL, Hanula JL, Walker JL (2002) Insect pollinators of three rare plants in a Florida longleaf pine forest. Florida Entomologist 85(2):308-316.
  14. DiMiceli, J. K., et al. (2007). "Seed preferences of wintering Henslow's sparrows." Condor 109: 595-604.