Eriocaulon decangulare

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Eriocaulon decangulare
Erio deca.jpg
Photo by John R. Gwaltney, Southeastern
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta - Flowering plants
Class: Liliopsida – Monocotyledons
Order: Eriocaulales
Family: Eriocaulaceae
Genus: Eriocaulon
Species: E. decangulare
Binomial name
Eriocaulon decangulare
Erio deca dist.jpg
Natural range of Eriocaulon decangulare from USDA NRCS Plants Database.

Common name: tenangle pipewort, common ten-angled pipewort, panhandle pipeword

Taxonomic notes

Synonyms: none[1]

Varieties: Eriocaulon decangulare Linnaeus var. decangulare; Eriocaulon decangulare Linnaeus var. latifolium Chapman ex Moldenke[1]


A description of Eriocaulon decangulare is provided in The Flora of North America. Flowers of the Eriocaulon genus are arranged in a crowded head on a long and leafless stalk.[2] Average maximum root depth of E. decangulare was found to be 21 cm, and average root porosity to be 71 percent.[3]


This species is distributed along the southeastern coastal plain from Pennsylvania and New Jersey south to Florida and west to Oklahoma and Texas.[4] E. decangulare var. decangulare can be found from New Jersey south to southern Florida, west to southwest Arkansas and eastern Texas, and south into Mexico and South America. E. decangulare var. latifolium can be found only in the panhandle of Florida, southern Alabama, and southern Mississippi.[1]



Habitats of E. decangulare var. decangulare include wet pine flatwoods and savannas, mafic fens and seeps, bogs, wind-tidal marshes, and seasonally flooded pools. As well, E. decangulare var. latifolium can be found in seepage bogs.[1] E. decangulare has been observed in a range of habitats including pond edges, in standing water of shallow ponds, moist depressions, bog muck, peaty margins, old stump hole depressions in savannas, sphagnous bogs, swampy areas, inundated pineland glades, and interdunal flats. Soils include sandy and wet soils, muck, moist to wet sandy peat, and rich loamy sand.[5] The species is listed by the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service as an obligate wetland species that is almost exclusively found in wetland habitats.[4] It requires full sun, and has a low tolerance for calcium carbonate.[2] E. decangulare was found to increase its presence in response to soil disturbance by heavy silvilculture in North Carolina. It has also shown regrowth in reestablished longleaf pinelands that were disturbed by these practices.[6]

Associated species include Pinus palustris, Pinus elliottii, Habenaria ciliaris, Balduina uniflora, Lilium catesbaei, Eragrostis elliottii, Rhynchospora sp., Cyrilla racemiflora, Taxodium sp., Aristida tussocks, Ilex coriacea, Lobelia brevifolia, Lobelia nuttallii, Polygala brevifolia, Polygala ramosa, Polygala lutea, Pluchea baccharis, Sarracenia flava, Rhexia petiolata, Lycopodium carolinianum, and Utricularia juncea.[5]

Eriocaulon decangulare is frequent and abundant in the North Florida Wet Flatlands, Lower Panhandle Savannas, and Panhandle Seepage Savannas community types as described in Carr et al. (2010).[7]


Generally, E. decangulare flowers from June until October.[1] It has been observed flowering in January and also from March to November with peak inflorescence in June.[8][5]

Seed bank and germination

This species has been found in the seed bank of both disturbed and non-disturbed areas in its native habitat.[9]

Fire ecology

It is commonly found in habitats that are fire-dependent.[10]


Eriocaulon decangulare has been observed at the Archbold Biological Station to host plasterer bees such as Hylaeus confluens (family Colletidae), leafcutting bees such as Megachile albitarsis (family Megachilidae), sweat bees from the Halictidae family such as Halictus poeyi, Lasioglossum coreopsis, L. nymphalis and L. tamiamensis, wasps from the Vespidae family such as Pachodynerus erynnis, Stenodynerus fundatiformis and S. histrionalis rufustus, thread-waisted wasps from the Sphecidae family such as Cerceris blakei, Ectemnius rufipes ais and Philanthus ventilabris.[11] Other species in the Hymenoptera order seen to pollinate E. decangulare include Dialictus coreopsis, Dialictus tamiamensis, and Halictus ligatus.[12] Additionally, E. decangulare has been observed to host owlflies such as Ululodes quadripunctatus (family Ascalaphidae).[13]

Conservation, cultivation, and restoration

This species is listed as extirpated by the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, and it is listed as endangered by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, Natural Heritage Program.[4]

Cultural use

Photo Gallery

References and notes

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Weakley, A.S. 2020. Flora of the Southeastern United States. Edition of 20 October 2020. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
  2. 2.0 2.1 [[1]] Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center. Accessed: May 9, 2019
  3. Brewer, J. S., et al. (2011). "Carnivory in plants as a beneficial trait in wetlands." Aquatic Botany 94: 62-70.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 USDA, NRCS. (2016). The PLANTS Database (, 9 May 2019). National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC 27401-4901 USA.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Florida State University Robert K. Godfrey Herbarium database. URL: Last accessed: May 2019. Collectors: Frank Almeda, Loran C. Anderson, Wilson Baker, Wade Biltoft, Keith Bradley, Edwin L. Bridges, Rev. Robert Brinker, Jenny Britten, Daniel Castillo, Andre F. Clewell, R. J. Coile, George R. Cooley, A. H. Curtiss, Richard J. Eaton, Nancy Edmonson, D. L. Fichtner, Paul Fortsch, Robert K. Godfrey, Bruce Hansen, JoAnn Hansen, Gary R. Knight, R. Komarek, Mabel Kral, Robert Kral, Olga Lakela, Robert L. Lazor, Robert J Lemaire, S. W. Leonard, Sidney McDaniel, Thomas E. Miller, Marc Minno, Melanie Mitchell, Richard S. Mitchell, John B. Nelson, R. A. Norris, Steve L. Orzell, R. E. Perdue, Jr., Richard Porcher, Gwynn W. Ramsey, P. L. Redfearn, P. L. Redfearn, Jr., Grady W. Reinert, Amanda Sang, Cecil R. Slaughter, William R. Stimson, and Jean W. Wooten. States and Counties: Florida: Bay, Brevard, Broward, Calhoun, Clay, Collier, Dixie, Duval, Escambia, Franklin, Gadsden, Gulf, Hillsborough, Indian River, Jackson, Jefferson, Levy, Liberty, Madison, Manatee, Martin, Okaloosa, Orange, Osceola, Palm Beach, Santa Rosa, Sarasota, St Johns, St Lucie, Sumter, Wakulla, Walton, and Washington. Georgia: Clinch, Thomas, and Worth. South Carolina: Berkeley.
  6. Cohen, S., R. Braham, and F. Sanchez. (2004). Seed Bank Viability in Disturbed Longleaf Pine Sites. Restoration Ecology 12(4):503-515.
  7. Carr, S.C., K.M. Robertson, and R.K. Peet. 2010. A vegetation classification of fire-dependent pinelands of Florida. Castanea 75:153-189.
  8. Nelson, G. PanFlora: Plant data for the eastern United States with emphasis on the Southeastern Coastal Plains, Florida, and the Florida Panhandle. Accessed: 9 DEC 2016
  9. Cohen, S., et al. (2004). "Seed bank viability in disturbed longleaf pine sites." Restoration Ecology 12: 503-515.
  10. Carr, S. C., et al. (2010). "A Vegetation Classification of Fire-Dependent Pinelands of Florida." Castanea 75(2): 153-189.
  11. Deyrup, M.A. and N.D. 2015. Database of observations of Hymenoptera visitations to flowers of plants on Archbold Biological Station, Florida, USA.
  12. Deyrup, M. J. E., and Beth Norden (2002). "The diversity and floral hosts of bees at the Archbold Biological Station, Florida (Hymenoptera: Apoidea)." Insecta mundi 16(1-3).
  13. [2]