Berlandiera pumila

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Berlandiera pumila
Berlandiera pumila Gil.jpg
Photo taken by Gil Nelson
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta - Flowering plants
Class: Magnoliopsida - Dicotyledons
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae ⁄ Compositae
Genus: Berlandiera
Species: B. pumila
Binomial name
Berlandiera pumila
(Michx.) Nutt.
BERL PUMI dist.jpg
Natural range of Berlandiera pumila from USDA NRCS Plants Database.

Common names: soft greeneyes, eastern green-eyes

Taxonomic notes

Named for the French-Swiss physician Jean Louis Berlandier (1805-1851) who collected plants in Texas and northern Mexico.[1]

Synonyms: Berlandiera x betonicifolia, misapplied[2]

Varieties: Berlandiera pumila (Michaux) Nuttall var. pumila; Berlandiera pumila (Michaux) Nuttall var. scabrella[2]

There are two subspecies. B. pumila pumila has a spotty distribution along the coastal states from North Carolina to eastern Texas, including north Florida. B. pumila scabrella occurs only in far eastern Texas and Louisiana.[3]


A description of Berlandiera pumila is provided in The Flora of North America.


Distributed North Carolina west to east central Texas.[4]



B. pumila is found in longleaf pine-wiregrass sandhill communities, turkey oak hardwood sand ridges, and the borders between sandhills and hammocks. It is also found in disturbed areas including roadsides and clear-cut pine stands. This species generally prefers to grow in sandy soil types like drying loamy sand.[5]

Associated species includes Baptisia laceolata, Eupatorium capillifolium, Pinus palustris, Quercus laevis, Quercus geminata, Quercus laurifolia, Quercus margaretta, Vaccinium arboretum, Sericocarpus tortifolius, Smilax auriculata, Polypremum procumbens, Serenoa repens, Rhus copallina, and others.[5]


B. pumila flowers have yellow ray flowers, green disc flowers and an inferior ovary.[6] It has been observed flowering February through September, with peak inflorescence in April and May.[5][7] Fruit is a blackish achene.

Fire ecology

It thrives in landscapes that experience frequent fire. Fire clears out the mid-canopy species which can shade and reduce diversity of the groundcover. It is adapted to surviving and returning after fire.[3]

Conservation, cultivation, and restoration

Cultural use

Photo Gallery

References and notes

  1. [[1]]Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center. Accessed: April 4, 2016
  2. 2.0 2.1 Weakley, A.S. 2020. Flora of the Southeastern United States. Edition of 20 October 2020. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
  3. 3.0 3.1 [[2]]Encyclopedia of Life. Accessed: April 4, 2016
  4. [[3]]Plant Delights. Accessed: April 4, 2016
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Florida State University Robert K. Godfrey Herbarium database. URL: Last accessed: June 2014. Collectors: L. C. Anderson, R. S. Blaisdell, D. Demaree, P. Elliot, W. T. Gillis, R. K. Godfrey, B. Hansen, J. Hansen, G. R. Knight, M. Knott, R. Kral, R. L. Lazor, J. B. Nelson, R. A. Norris, G. W. Ramsey, C. R. Slaughter, H. L. Stripling, B. Tan, L. E. Williams, and J. Wooten. States and Counties: Florida: Alachua, Bay, Calhoun, Columbia, Escambia, Franklin, Gadsden, Hamilton, Jackson, Lafayette, Leon, Liberty, Madison, Nassau, Okaloosa, Santa Rosa, Wakulla, and Washington. Georgia: Decatur.
  6. [[4]]
  7. Nelson, G. PanFlora: Plant data for the eastern United States with emphasis on the Southeastern Coastal Plains, Florida, and the Florida Panhandle. Accessed: 7 DEC 2016