Polypremum procumbens

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Polypremum procumbens
Polypremum procumbens Gil.jpg
Photo taken by Gil Nelson
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class: Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Order: Scrophulariales
Family: Buddlejaceae
Genus: Polypremum
Species: P. procumbens
Binomial name
Polypremum procumbens
L.
POLY PROC dist.jpg
Natural range of Polypremum procumbens from USDA NRCS Plants Database.

Common names: Juniper leaf, Rustweed

Taxonomic notes

Description

"Perennial, glabrous herb with radially ascending or repent branches from a central crown. Leaves opposite, linear, 1-2.5 cm long, 0.5-2 mm wide, acute. Inflorescence a terminal leafy cyme. Flowers actinomorphic, sessile or on pedicels less than 0.5 mm long. Calyx divided to near the base, teeth 4, subulate, 2-3 mm long; corolla divided 1/3 in length, 4-lobed, white, rotate; stamens 4, included. Capsule 1.5-2.5 mm long; seeds yellow, angulate, more or less square, microscopically pitted, 0.3-0.4 mm long." [1]

Distribution

Ecology

Habitat

In the Coastal Plain in Florida and Georgia, P. procumbens can be found near streamlet crossings in open woodlands, well drained sandy soils of citrus furrows, annually burned savannas, sandy shores of karst ponds, annually burned longleaf pinelands, well drained uplands, and coastal dunes. [2] It can also be found in compacted soils of roadways, frequently mowed lawns, and roadside depressions. Associated species include Lindernia, Murdannia, Kyllinga and Sida. [2]

Soil types include loamy sand and moist loam. [2]

Phenology

P. procumbens been observed flowering from May to September with peak inflorescence in July.[3][2] Fruiting has been observed in July.[2]

Seed dispersal

This species is thought to be dispersed by gravity. [4]

Seed bank and germination

It was found viable in the seed bank of a pine flatwoods in Florida but only one year following fire.[5] Commonly found in seed banks of disturbed areas. [6] In a longleaf pine community in southwestern Georgia and in shrub dominated bays in eastern South Carolina, P. procumbens was found in the seedbank.[7] [8]

Pollination

The following Hymenoptera families and species were observed visiting flowers of Polypremum procumbens at Archbold Biological Station: [9]

Halictidae: Lasioglossum nymphalis

Megachilidae: Megachile brevis pseudobrevis

Sphecidae: Cerceris blakei, Microbembex monodonta

Vespidae: Stenodynerus fundatiformis

Use by animals

Deyrup observed this bee, Dialictus nymphalis, on P. procumbens.[10] Cover of P. procumbens decreased significantly through time after three grazing treatments (no grazing by deer or cattle, grazing by deer, or grazing by deer and cattle) in thinned and clearcut forested areas. [11]


Conservation and management

Cultivation and restoration

Photo Gallery

References and notes

  1. Radford, Albert E., Harry E. Ahles, and C. Ritchie Bell. Manual of the Vascular Flora of the Carolinas. 1964, 1968. The University of North Carolina Press. 835. Print.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Florida State University Robert K. Godfrey Herbarium database. URL: http://herbarium.bio.fsu.edu. Last accessed: July 2015. Collectors: Loran C. Anderson, Cecil R Slaughter, Dianne Hall, R. A. Norris, R. Komarek, R. F. Doren, S. W. Leonard, J. Mickel, Thomas E. Miller, Robert K. Godfrey. States and Counties: Florida: Duval, Gadsden, Jefferson, Leon, Polk, St. Johns, Wakulla. Georgia: Grady, Thomas. Mexico. Compiled by Tall Timbers Research Station and Land Conservancy.
  3. Nelson, G. PanFlora: Plant data for the eastern United States with emphasis on the Southeastern Coastal Plains, Florida, and the Florida Panhandle. www.gilnelson.com/PanFlora/ Accessed: 12 DEC 2016
  4. Kirkman, L. Katherine. Unpublished database of seed dispersal mode of plants found in Coastal Plain longleaf pine-grasslands of the Jones Ecological Research Center, Georgia.
  5. Maliakal, S.K., E.S. Menges and J.S. Denslow. 2000. Community composition and regeneration of Lake Wales Ridge wiregrass flatwoods in retlation to time-since-fire. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 127:125-138.
  6. Maliakal, S. K., E. S. Menges, et al. (2000). "Community composition and regeneration of Lake Wales Ridge wiregrass flatwoods in relation to time-since-rire " The Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 127: 125-138
  7. Andreu, M. G., et al. 2009. Can managers bank on seed banks when restoring Pinus taeda L. plantations in southwest Georgia? Restoration Ecology 17:586-596.
  8. Navarra, J. J. and P. F. Quintana-Ascencio 2012. Spatial pattern and composition of the Florida scrub seed bank and vegetation along an anthropegenic disturbance gradient. Applied Vegetation Science 15:349-358.
  9. Deyrup, M.A. and N.D. 2015. Database of observations of Hymenoptera visitations to flowers of plants on Archbold Biological Station, Florida, USA.
  10. Deyrup, M. J. E., and Beth Norden (2002). "The diversity and floral hosts of bees at the Archbold Biological Station, Florida (Hymenoptera: Apoidea)." Insecta mundi 16(1-3).
  11. Brockway, D. G. and C. E. Lewis (2003). "Influence of deer, cattle grazing and timber harvest on plant species diversity in a longleaf pine bluestem ecosystem." Forest Ecology and Management 175: 49-69.