Agrimonia incisa

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Agrimonia incisa
Agrimonia incisa AFP.jpg
Photo by Atlas of Florida Plants Database
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta - Flowering plants
Class: Magnoliopsida - Dicots
Order: Rosales
Family: Rosaceae
Genus: Agrimonia
Species: A. incisa
Binomial name
Agrimonia incisa
Torrey & A. Gray
AGRI INCI DIST.JPG
Natural range of Agrimonia incisa from USDA NRCS Plants Database.

Taxonomic Notes

Synonyms: none

Varieties: none

Description

A. incisa is a perennial forb in the family Roaceae native to North America [1]. It has tuberous roots and rhizomes, which measure from 2.25 cm to 3.2 cm wide. Fruit is large and barbed, similar to all Agrimonia species [2]. The fruit contains reflexed bristles in the lowermost row, and the whole fruit must be stratified in order to initiate germination [3].

Distribution

A. incisa is found in the Southeast United States, however the distribution is spotty ranging from North Carolina to central Florida and eastern Texas [4].

Ecology

Habitat

A. incisa occurs in sandhills and other upland pine communities.[5]. However, the habitat can vary from mesic longleaf pine woodland to dry pine-oak woodland, and pine plantations [4]. A. incisa occurs on sands located on undulating to hilly sloping uplands that are permeable as well as well drained. A. incisa seems to prefer open woodlands, and disappears as the levels of light decrease [2].

Associated species - Andropogon ternarius Michx., Centrosema virginianum (L.) Benth,, Croton argyranthemus Michx., Dicanthelium aciculare (Desv. ex Poir.) Gould & Clark, Pityopsis graminafolia (michx.) Nutt., Pinus palustris P. Mill., Toxicodendron radicans (L.) Kuntze, and Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash [2].

Phenology

A. incisa flowers from late July to November [3]. It has been observed developing fruit in the months of August through November as well as January. [6]

Seed dispersal

This species is thought to be dispersed by gravity. [7]

Fire ecology

A. incisa occurs in frequently burned upland pine communities [2]. It can be seen that fire suppression and the habitat alteration causes a decline in the population [4].

Pollination

The population is predominantly pollinated by small bees within the subfamily Halictinae, including Hymenoptera, Apoidea, and Halictidae [2].

Conservation and Management

Agrimonia incisa is a rare species in the community, and is considered threatened by the United States Forest Service. Maintenance of this species relies on maintaining the herbaceous layer and canopy relationship through promoting the proper light and shade levels, but more importantly, prescribed fire is best to ensure the abundance of the species within the community [2].

Cultivation and restoration

Photo Gallery

References and notes

  1. USDA Plants Database URL:[1]
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 MacRoberts, M. H. and B. R. MacRoberts (1997). "The ecology of Agrimonia incisa Torrey & Gray (Rosaceae) in the West Gulf Coastal Plain." Phytologia 82: 114-128
  3. 3.0 3.1 Kline, G. J. and P. D. Sorensen (2008). "A revision of Agrimonia (Rosaceae) in North and Central America." Brittonia: 11-33.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Sorrie, B. A. and S. W. Leonard (1999). "Noteworthy records of Mississippi vascular plants." Sida 18(3): 889-908.
  5. Coile, N. C. (2000). Notes on Florida �s Regulated Plant Index (Rule 5B-40), Botany Contribution No. 38, 3nd edition. Gainesville, Florida, Florida Deaprtment of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry.
  6. Florida State University Robert K. Godfrey Herbarium database. URL: http://herbarium.bio.fsu.edu. Last accessed: June 2018. Collectors: A. B. Pittman, S. W. Leonard, Robert Kral, Robert K. Godfrey, Steve L. Orzell, Edwin L. Bridges, Loran C. Anderson, A. Gholson Jr., Wilson Baker, J. P. Gillespie, Richard R. Clinebell II, J. M. Kane, Frankie Snow, William Platt, and M. Darst. States and counties: Florida: Citrus, Wakulla, Hernando, Liberty, Escambia, Jackson, Madison, Santa Rosa, Leon, Gadsden, and Polk. Georgia: Clay, Thomas, and Coffee. South Carolina: Orangeburg. Alabama: Baldwin.
  7. Kirkman, L. Katherine. Unpublished database of seed dispersal mode of plants found in Coastal Plain longleaf pine-grasslands of the Jones Ecological Research Center, Georgia.