Agrimonia incisa

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Agrimonia incisa
Agrimonia incisa AFP.jpg
Photo by Atlas of Florida Plants Database
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta - Flowering plants
Class: Magnoliopsida - Dicots
Order: Rosales
Family: Rosaceae
Genus: Agrimonia
Species: A. incisa
Binomial name
Agrimonia incisa
Torrey & A. Gray
Natural range of Agrimonia incisa from USDA NRCS Plants Database.

Common Name: Pineland Agrimony

Taxonomic Notes

No synonyms.[1]

No varieties.[1]


Agrimonia incisa is a perennial forb in the family Roaceae native to North America[2] growing up to 36" tall.[3] The leaves are compound, elliptic or oblanceolate shaped, and pubescent. Leaflets are deeply incised and measure 1/2" – 1" long and 3/8" – 1/2" wide with lower surface glands.

The flowers are 1/2" wide and are organized in inflorescence rachis numbering up to 50 flowers per raceme.[4] It has tuberous roots and rhizomes, which measure from 2.25 - 3.2 cm wide. The fruit is large and barbed, similar to all Agrimonia species.[5] The fruit contains reflexed bristles in the lowermost row, and the whole fruit must be stratified in order to initiate germination.[4]


A. incisa is found in the southeast United States, however the distribution is spotty ranging from North Carolina to central Florida and eastern Texas[6].



A. incisa occurs in sandhills and other upland pine communities.[7]. However, the habitat can vary from mesic longleaf pine woodland to dry pine-oak woodland, and pine plantations[6]. A. incisa occurs on sands located on undulating to hilly sloping uplands that are permeable as well as well drained. A. incisa seems to prefer open woodlands, and disappears as the levels of light decrease[5].

Associated species include Andropogon ternarius, Centrosema virginianum, Croton argyranthemus, Dicanthelium aciculare, Pityopsis graminafolia, Pinus palustris, Toxicodendron radicans, and Schizachyrium scoparium[5].


A. incisa flowers from late July to November[4]. It has been observed flowering in the months of July through November and January with peak inflorescence in October, and fruiting during the same time.[8][9]

Seed dispersal

This species is thought to be dispersed by gravity. [10]

Fire ecology

A. incisa occurs in frequently burned upland pine communities[5]. It can be seen that fire suppression and the habitat alteration causes a decline in the population[6].

Pollination and insect hosting

The population is predominantly pollinated by small bees within the subfamily Halictinae, including Hymenoptera, Apoidea, and Halictidae[5].

Conservation, cultivation, and restoration

Agrimonia incisa is a rare species in the community, and is considered threatened by the United States Forest Service. Maintenance of this species relies on maintaining the herbaceous layer and canopy relationship through promoting the proper light and shade levels, but more importantly, prescribed fire is best to ensure the abundance of the species within the community[5]. It is listed as endangered in the state of Florida.[2]

Cultural use

Photo Gallery

References and notes

  1. 1.0 1.1 Weakley, A.S. 2015. Flora of the southern and mid-atlantic states. Working Draft of 21 May 2015. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
  2. 2.0 2.1 USDA Plants Database URL:[1]
  3. Observation by Roger Hammer in Florida Panhandle. February 2017, posted to Florida Flora and Ecosystematics Facebook Group February 4, 2017.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Kline, G. J. and P. D. Sorensen (2008). "A revision of Agrimonia (Rosaceae) in North and Central America." Brittonia: 11-33.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 MacRoberts, M. H. and B. R. MacRoberts (1997). "The ecology of Agrimonia incisa Torrey & Gray (Rosaceae) in the West Gulf Coastal Plain." Phytologia 82: 114-128
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Sorrie, B. A. and S. W. Leonard (1999). "Noteworthy records of Mississippi vascular plants." Sida 18(3): 889-908.
  7. Coile, N. C. (2000). Notes on Florida �s Regulated Plant Index (Rule 5B-40), Botany Contribution No. 38, 3nd edition. Gainesville, Florida, Florida Deaprtment of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry.
  8. Nelson, G. PanFlora: Plant data for the eastern United States with emphasis on the Southeastern Coastal Plains, Florida, and the Florida Panhandle. Accessed: 4 MAR 2019
  9. Florida State University Robert K. Godfrey Herbarium database. URL: Last accessed: June 2018. Collectors: A. B. Pittman, S. W. Leonard, Robert Kral, Robert K. Godfrey, Steve L. Orzell, Edwin L. Bridges, Loran C. Anderson, A. Gholson Jr., Wilson Baker, J. P. Gillespie, Richard R. Clinebell II, J. M. Kane, Frankie Snow, William Platt, and M. Darst. States and counties: Florida: Citrus, Wakulla, Hernando, Liberty, Escambia, Jackson, Madison, Santa Rosa, Leon, Gadsden, and Polk. Georgia: Clay, Thomas, and Coffee. South Carolina: Orangeburg. Alabama: Baldwin.
  10. Kirkman, L. Katherine. Unpublished database of seed dispersal mode of plants found in Coastal Plain longleaf pine-grasslands of the Jones Ecological Research Center, Georgia.