Agalinis obtusifolia

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Agalinis obtusifolia
Agalinis obtusifolia Gil.jpg
Photo was taken by Gil Nelson
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta - Flowering plants
Class: Magnoliopsida - Dicotyledons
Order: Lamiales
Family: Orobanchaceae
Genus: Agalinis
Species: A. obtusifolia
Binomial name
Agalinis obtusifolia
Raf.
AGAL OBTU dist.jpg
Natural range of Agalinis obtusifolia from USDA NRCS Plants Database.

Common name: Tenlobe false foxglove

Taxonomic notes

Synonyms: A. decemloba (Greene) Pennell; A. tenella Pennell; Gerardia obstusifolia (Rafinesque) Pennell

Description

Annual. Parasitic to the roots of grasses and other herbs. Leaves are opposite, linear to filiform, and sometimes will have tufts on the shoots. Flowers are showy, in terminal racemes; the calyx is 5-parted, the lobes are shorter than the tube; the corolla is 5-parted. The flowers are rose-lavender in color and are rarely white. There are usually 2 yellow lines and numerous purple spots in the throat on the tube. The tube is broad, campanulate, and the lobes are shorter than the tube. The throat is usually lanose at the base of the 2 upper corolla lobes. There are 4 stamens, didynamous, that include filaments and anthers that are also lanose. The stigmas are elongated. The capsules are globose or subglobose, loculicidal.[1]

Is a light yellow-green colored annual. It does not blacken when being dried. The stems are slender, stiff, puberulent or glabrous, and striate-angled. Growing 3-9dm tall. The stems are moderately to profusely branched form the upper half of the stem. The leaves are linear to narrowly linear-obovate or spatulate, about 5-15mm long, ca. 1mm wide, and are scaberulous above. The terminal racemes are distinct. The pedicels are mostly 10-25mm long. The calyx tube is 2-3mm long, are reticulate veined, truncated. The lobes are reduced to mucronate tips that are less man 0.3mm long. The corolla is pale in color, 1-1.5cm long. The throat is not yellow striate. The corolla is lanose at the base of the 2 upper corolla lobes. The capsules are globose, are 2-3mm in diameter. Flowers from September to October.[1]

Distribution

It is infrequent in all of Florida. Found west to Mississippi and north to Pennsylvania.[2] It's found within the Coastal Plain, from Delaware to the Florida Keys, westward to southeastern Louisiana.[3]

Louisiana= vulnerable North Carolina= imperiled Delaware= possibly extirpated.[4]

Ecology

Habitat

In the Coastal Plain it occurs in frequently burned upland pine communities (Ultisols), flatwoods (Spodosols), and wet meadows, savannas, and seepage slopes (pitcher plant bogs) including peaty areas (Histosols). It is also occurs on shallow calcareous soils of limestone glades of northern Florida and oolitic limerock of slash pine rocklands in sothern Florida.[5] It occurs in primarily high light areas maintained by fire or edaphic conditions but also partial shade adjacent to open areas. It is tolerant of competition with dense grass and often occurs in conjuction in areas dominated by bunch grasses and sedges. It seems to be limited to native pine and wet prairie communities with minimal soil disturbance, although it can occur on roadsides.[5] It is found in pine savannas, flatwoods, and bog margins.[6] It is also found in seasonally wet pine savannas and flatwoods, hillside bogs in pinelands, in shallow soil on oolitic limestone in pinelands.[3]

Associated species include Hypericum, Eupatorium; Agalinis divaricata, Agalinis filicaulis, Aristida stricta, Pinus palustris, Seymeria, Quercus; Aristida berichiana, Serenoa repens, Schoenus nigricans, Rhyncospora divergerns, Liatris, Schoenus nigricans, Pinus elliottii and others.[5]

Phenology

Agalinis obtusifolia has been observed to flower March through November,[5] with peak inflorescence in September and October in northern Florida.[7] This species also starts to fruit September through October.[5]

Seed dispersal

This species is thought to be dispersed by gravity. [8]

Seed bank and germination

Length of seed viability within the seed bank is unknown.[4]

Fire ecology

It does well in frequently burned old growth longleaf pine and wiregrass savannas.[5]

Pollination

Pollination occurs by selfing and out-crossing. Specific pollinators have not been documented.[4]

Use by animals

Agalinis species, including this one, host larvae of the common buckeye butterfly (Junonia coenia) in Florida.[9]

Conservation and management

Cultivation and restoration

Photo Gallery

References and notes

  1. 1.0 1.1 Radford, Albert E., Harry E. Ahles, and C. Ritchie Bell. Manual of the Vascular Flora of the Carolinas. 1964, 1968. The University of North Carolina Press. 960. Print.
  2. Hall, David W. Illustrated Plants of Florida and the Coastal Plain: based on the collections of Leland and Lucy Baltzell. 1993. A Maupin House Book. Gainesville. 342. Print.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Godfrey, Robert K. and Jean W. Wooten. Aquatic and Wetland Plants of Southeastern United States: Dicotyledons. 1981. University of Georgia Press. 663, 665. Print.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 [[1]]NatureServe. Accessed: March 22, 2016
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 Florida State University Robert K. Godfrey Database. URL: http://herbarium.bio.fsu.edu. Last accessed: June 2014. Collectors: Loran C. Anderson, Wilson Baker, W. C. Brumbach, J.M. Canne, Robert K. Godfrey, J. Hays, Richard D. Houk, Ann F. Johnson, Nancy E. Jordan, R. Kral, R. Komarek, S.W. Leonard, Sidney McDaniel, and Alfred Schotz. States and Counties: Florida: Calhoun, Gadsden, Holmes, Jackson, Liberty, Monroe, Santa Rosa, Wakulla, and Walton. Georgia: Baker, Thomas, and Worth.
  6. Wunderlin, Richard P. and Bruce F. Hansen. Guide to the Vascular Plants of Florida. Second edition. 2003. University Press of Florida: Gainesville/Tallahassee/Tampa/Boca Raton/Pensacola/Orlando/Miami/Jacksonville/Ft. Myers. 547. Print.
  7. PanFlora: Plant data for the eastern United States with emphasis on the Southeastern Coastal Plains, Florida, and the Florida Panhandle. www.gilnelson.com/PanFlora/ Accessed: 15 JAN 2016
  8. Kirkman, L. Katherine. Unpublished database of seed dispersal mode of plants found in Coastal Plain longleaf pine-grasslands of the Jones Ecological Research Center, Georgia.
  9. Observation by Roger Hammer in Silver Springs State Park, Marion County, FL. September 2016, posted to Florida Flora and Ecosystematics Facebook Group August 4, 2017.