Agalinis filifolia

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Agalinis filifolia
Agal fili.jpg
Photo by Craig Huegel
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta - Flowering plants
Class: Magnoliopsida - Dicotyledons
Order: Lamiales
Family: Orobanchaceae
Genus: Agalinis
Species: A. filifolia
Binomial name
Agalinis filifolia
(Nutt.) Raf.
AGAL FILI dist.jpg
Natural range of Agalinis filifolia from USDA NRCS Plants Database.

Common names: Seminole false foxglove; Fine-leaf gerardia

Taxonomic notes

Synonym: Gerardia filifolia Nutt.


It is an annual.[1]


This species is frequent in all of Florida, to which it is almost endemic.[2] However, its range barely extends into parts of Georgia and Alabama.[1] In Georgia it is listed as critically imperiled.[3]



This species is found in sandhills and coastal scrub.[4] It is also found in longleaf pine savannas, sandy pinewoods and barrens, and on sand dunes, flats, and interdune hollows. Other habitats includes open stands of evergreen oak shrub, flatwoods, saw-palmetto woods, borders of titi bogs, in dry sandy scrub that borders mesic woodlands,[5] scrubby flatwoods, and on roads or firebreaks.[2] Agalinis filifolia is somewhat shade tolerant and found in a variety of moisture conditions, from dry to wet.[1] It is observed in mainly sandy soils, including loamy sand. It can also be found in disturbed habitats, including clear-cuts and pine plantations, roadside banks and ditches, and clearings for power lines.[5]

Associated species include Myrica cerifera, Aristida stricta, Myrica pusilo, Aristida spiciformis, Chrysoma, Polygonella, Ceratiola, Conradina, Saw palmetto, Quercus species, and Pinus species.[5] Polygonella associates may include P. polygama var. polygama or P. brachystachya, pending final taxanomic identification.[2]


This species has been observed flowering August through October, and fruiting August through November.[5] In central Florida, A. filifolia may be one of the earliest Agalinis species to peak flowering.[2]


Polites vibex (the whirlabout or skipper) is known for nectaring A. filifolia.[6] Additionally, the following Hymenoptera families and species were observed visiting flowers of Agalinis filifolia at Archbold Biological Station:[7]

Apidae: Apis mellifera, Bombus impatiens, B. pennsylvanicus

Halictidae: Agapostemon spledens, Augochlorella aurata, A. gratiosa, Lasioglossum coreopsis, L. miniatulus, L. nymphalis, L. placidensis, L. puteulanum

Megachilidae: Megachile brevis psedudobrevis, M. mendica, M. petulans, M. texana

Use by animals

Serves as larval food for the caterpillars of common buckeye butterflies[8] Agalinis species, including this one, host larvae of the common buckeye butterfly (Junonia coenia) in Florida.[9]

Conservation and management

Cultivation and restoration

Photo Gallery

References and notes

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Hall, David W. Illustrated Plants of Florida and the Coastal Plain: based on the collections of Leland and Lucy Baltzell. 1993. A Maupin House Book. Gainesville. 341. Print.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Observation by Edwin Bridges in Kissimmee River floodplain, Highlands County, FL, August 18, 2015, posted to Florid Flora and ecosystematics Facebook Group August 22, 2015.
  3. [[1]]NatureServe. Accessed: March 22, 2016
  4. Wunderlin, Richard P. and Bruce F. Hansen. Guide to the Vascular Plants of Florida. Second edition. 2003. University Press of Florida: Gainesville/Tallahassee/Tampa/Boca Raton/Pensacola/Orlando/Miami/Jacksonville/Ft. Myers. 546. Print.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 Florida State University Robert K. Godfrey Herbarium database. URL: Last accessed: June 2014.Collectors: Sidney M. Daniel, Robert K. Godfrey, R. Kral, Loran C. Anderson, J. B. Hilmon, J. M. Canne, Mark A. Garland, Gary R. Knight, Nancy Endmonson, Cecil R. Slaughter, and Jean W. Wooten. States and Counties: Florida: Wakulla, Franklin, Liberty, Bay, Escambia, Charlotte, Brevard, Nassau, Putnam, Sarasota, Taylor, Manatee, and Lake. Georgia: Thomas
  6. Observation by Patrick R. Leary in both Four Crees State Forest, Nassau County, FL, September 23, 2016, posted to Florida Flora and Ecosystematics Facebook Group September 23, 2016.
  7. Deyrup, M.A. 2015. Database of observations of Hymenoptera visitations to flowering plants on Archbold Biological Station, Florida, USA.
  8. [[2]]Native Florida Wildflowers. Accessed: March 22, 2016.
  9. Observation by Roger Hammer in Silver Springs State Park, Marion County, FL. September 2016, posted to Florida Flora and Ecosystematics Facebook Group August 4, 2017.