Brickellia eupatorioides

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Brickellia eupatorioides
Bric eupa.jpg
Photo by Anne Barkdoll and Rick Owens, Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta - Flowering plants
Class: Magnoliopsida - Dicotyledons
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae ⁄ Compositae
Genus: Brickellia
Species: B. eupatorioides
Binomial name
Brickellia eupatorioides
(L.) Shinners
BRIC EUPA dist.jpg
Natural range of Brickellia eupatorioides from USDA NRCS Plants Database.

Common name: False boneset

Taxonomic notes

Synonyms: Brickellia eupatorioides (Linnaeus) Shinners var. eupatorioides; Kuhnia eupatorioides Linnaeus; Kuhnia eupatorioides var. eupatorioides; Kuhnia eupatorioides var. pyramidalis Rafinesque

Variety: Brickellia eupatorioides (Linnaeus) Shinners var. corymbulosa (Torrey & Grey) Shinners

Description

A description of Brickellia eupatorioides is provided in The Flora of North America. Brickellia eupatorioides var. corymbulosa has been documented to be variable in habit, from erect and subvirgatte to decumbent, spreading or distinctly prostrate, arising from a slender deep-seated rootstock. [1] This species is perennial.

Distribution

Ecology

Mycorrhizal relationships seemed to yield significantly higher phosphorous levels.[2]

Habitat

It is common in grassland communities.[3] It is especially dominant in the tallgrass prairie.[4] It is also found in loblolly pine communities.[5] In addition, this species occurs in pine-oak woodlands, open pinewoods, limestone glades, sandhills, longleaf pine-wiregrass communities, and hardwood hammocks. It can also grow in disturbed areas including railways, roadside embankments, and open fields. B. eupatorioides appears in a range of light conditions, from semi-shade to full sun, and it prefers rocky or sandy soils. In Florida, it has been found in drying or moist loamy sand; in New Mexico, gravelly sand; in Texas, clay loam; and in Kansas, dry rocky soil. [1] Associated species include Symphyotrichum concolor, Aster linariifolius, Aster phyllolepis, Campanula americana, Ageratina aromatica, Liatris gracilis, and others. [1]

Phenology

B. eupatorioides flowers July through November, and fruits in October. [1]

Seed dispersal

Achenes are long and cylindrical and have a tuft of white hair on top to aid in wind distribution. [6] This species is thought to be dispersed by wind. [7]

Seed bank and germination

It germinates well at 18-22 degrees Celsius.[2]

Fire ecology

It is fire tolerant.[3]

Pollination

Pollinated by bumblebees, Halictid bees, and leaf cutting bees (Megachile spp.).[6]

Use by animals

The caterpillars of Schinia trifascia (Three-lined flower moth), Schinia oleagina (Oleagina flower moth), and Schinia grandimedia (False Boneset flower moth) feed destructively on the flowerheads and developing seeds.[6] Other insect feeders include Lygus lineolaris, Aphis coreopsidis, Dichagyris grotei, Melanoplus confusus (Little Pasture Grasshopper), Melanoplus keeleri (Keeler's Grasshopper), and Melanoplus discolor (Contrasting Spur-throated Grasshopper).

Conservation and management

Cultivation and restoration

Preference is full sun and dry conditions, although it can tolerate a little shade. Prefers poor soil that is made up of mostly clay, sand, or gravel. [6]

Photo Gallery

References and notes

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Florida State University Robert K. Godfrey Herbarium database. URL: http://herbarium.bio.fsu.edu. Last accessed: June 2014. Collectors: L. C. Anderson, W. Baker, E. A. Bartholomew, S. F. Blake, J. R. Bozeman, J. R. Burkhalter, C. Cooksey, D. S. Correll, V. L. Cory, D. Demaree, J. Ewan, N Ewan, W. B. Fox, A. Gholson Jr., R. K. Godfrey, F. R. Hedges, N. C. Henderson, R. Komarek, J. Lazor, R. Lazor, R. Kral, S. McDaniel, J. B. Morrill, G. W. Parmelee, R. E. Perdue Jr., A. E. Radford, G. S. Ramseur, P. L. Redfearn Jr., J. A. Steyermark, B. C. Tharpe, and C. S. Wallis. States and Counties: Alabama: Jefferson and Talladega. Arkansas: Cleburne, Faulkner, and Logan. Colorado: Boulder and Lincoln. Florida: Calhoun, Decatur, Escambia, Gadsden, Jackson, Leon, Liberty, Madison, Suwannee, and Wakulla. Georgia: Decatur, Early, Grady, and Thomas. Iowa: Mills and Pottawatomie. Kansas: Hamilton and Johnson. Kentucky: Madison. Maryland: St. Marys. Michigan: Barry and Kent. Mississippi: Okibbeha. Missouri: Cass, Crawford, Greene, Jackson, Johnson, and Platte. New Mexico: Colfax. North Carolina: Alexander, Buncombe, and Richmond. Tennessee: Davidson. Texas: Crockett, Dallas, Gray, Kern, Milam, Ochiltree, Pecos, Tarrant, Williamson, and Wood. Virginia: Giles. West Virginia: Wirt.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Kula, A. A. R., D. C. Hartnett, et al. (2005). "Effects of mycorrhizal symbiosis on tallgrass prairie plant-herbivore interactions." Ecology Letters 8: 61-69.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Bahm, M. A., T. G. Barnes, et al. (2011). "Herbicide and fire effects on smooth brome (Bromus inermis) and Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) in invaded prairie remnants." Invasive Plant Science and Management 4: 189-197.
  4. Towne 2002 cited by Kula et al 2005.More citation needed.
  5. Miller, J. H. and K. V. Miller (1999). Forest plants of the southeast, and their wildlife uses Champaign, IL, Southern Weed Science Society.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 [[1]]Illinois Wildflowers. Accessed: April 4, 2016
  7. Kirkman, L. Katherine. Unpublished database of seed dispersal mode of plants found in Coastal Plain longleaf pine-grasslands of the Jones Ecological Research Center, Georgia.