|photo by Gil Nelson|
|Division:||Magnoliophyta - Flowering plants|
|Class:||Magnoliopsida - Dicotyledons|
|Family:||Asteraceae ⁄ Compositae|
| Bidens bipinnata|
|Natural range of Bidens bipinnata from USDA NRCS Plants Database.|
Common name: Spanish needles
Synonym: Bidens bipinnata var. bipinnata
A description of Bidens bipinnata is provided in The Flora of North America.
B. bipinnata is an annual herb. It tends to be a ruderal, weedy species.
B. bipinnata is found in marsh and island communities, river bluffs, and pine-oak woodlands. It has also been found in disturbed areas including campgrounds, roadsides, ditches, disturbed coastal hammocks, old fields, and fire line. This species prefers shaded environments and moist sandy soil types like sandy loam, red sandy clay, and loamy sand.
Associated species includes Quercus geminata, Desmodium ochroleucum, D. rotundifolium, Pinus, other Quercus's, Cornus florida, Liquidambar styraciflua, and others.
This species has been observed flowering and fruiting from July to October.
The barbed awns of the seeds allow for the seed to attach to animals and humans and be dispersed far distances.
Pollinated by Honeybees, leaf-cutting bees (Megachile spp., Coelioxys sayi, Heriades leavitti), and the butterfly Pieris rapae.
Use by animals
Caterpillars of moths Cirrhophanus triangulifer, Condica confederata, Epiblema otiosana, Palthis asopialis, Platysenta mobilis, and Synchlora aerata feed on the foliage. Leaf beetles Calligrapha bidenticola and Calligrapha californica feed on the leaves. The aphid Aphis coreopsidis sucks juices from the flowering stalks. Seeds are eaten by birds such as the Ring-Necked Pheasant, Bobwhite, Wood Duck, Purple Finch, and Common Redpoll. The foliage is eaten by the cottontail rabbit.
Conservation and management
Cultivation and restoration
Cultivate in partial sunlight, moist to mesic conditions with fertile loamy soil.
References and notes
- Florida State University Robert K. Godfrey Herbarium database. URL: http://herbarium.bio.fsu.edu. Last accessed: June 2014. Collectors: Bian Tan, Loran C. Anderson, Ed Keppner, Lisa Keppner, Richard S. Mitchell, R.K. Godfrey, R. Kral, Wilson Baker, R. Komarek, Andre F. Clewell, R.A. Norris, and Andre F. Clewell. States and Counties: Florida: Columbia, Wakulla, Bay, Calhoun, Leon, Franklin, Jackson, Jefferson, and Liberty. Georgia: Grady.
- (http://www.illinoiswildflowers.info/weeds/plants/spanish_needles.htmIllinois Wildflowers. Accessed: April 4, 2016
- Fire Manager. Accessed: April 4, 2016