Bejaria racemosa

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Bejaria racemosa
Bejaria racemosa2 MSmith.jpg
Photo taken by Michelle Smith at Archbold Biological Station
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta - Flowering plants
Class: Magnoliopsida - Dicotyledons
Order: Ericales
Family: Ericaceae
Genus: Bejaria
Species: B. racemosa
Binomial name
Bejaria racemosa
Vent.
Beja race dist.jpg
Natural range of Bejaria racemosa from USDA NRCS Plants Database.

Common names: Flyweed, Tarflower, Flycatcher

Taxonomic notes

Synonym: Befaria racemosa Vent. [1]

Description

A description of Bejaria racemosa is provided in The Flora of North America.

B. racemosa is a long live perennial shrub with leaves that are alternate, entire and coriaceous. The leaves and stems are covered with rough, firm, and stiff hairs.[2] It grows around 2 to 5 feet high and has large white flowers tinged pink. A viscid sticky substance that entraps insects is secreted on the stem below the flower.[3]

Species in the genus Bejaria have separate petals, radial symmetry, open rotate flowers, superior ovaries, and septicidal capsules; classifying them as the most primitive genus in Ericaceae.[4]

Distribution

It is a native to southeast Georgia and throughout Florida, except in the western panhandle and the keys.[5]

Ecology

Habitat

In the Coastal Plain in Florida, B. racemosa has been found in pine flatwoods, scrub barrens, and sand pine scrubs.[6] It is drought tolerant and is found on well drained sandy soils in full sun to light shade.[7] Associated species include Callicarpa americana, Ceratiola ericoides, Rhus copallinum, slash pine, wax myrtle, and saw palmetto.[5]

Phenology

Flowers are white with a pink tinge with black, sticky dehiscent fruit.[5] [8] It has been observed flowering and fruiting May through August.[6]


Seed bank and germination

For some species native to fire-prone habitats, chemicals in smoke may induce germination, signaling the seed that the environmental conditions are favorable for germination and growth[9]. In a study done by Lindon and Menges (2008), they found that smoke exposure under five minutes did not effect the germination rate, however there was no germination for seeds exposed to smoke for more than five minutes.[9]

Pollination

The following Hymenoptera families and species were observed visiting flowers of Bejaria racemosa at Archbold Biological Station:[10]

Apidae: Apis mellifera, Bombus impatiens, B. pennsylvanicus

Halictidae: Agapostemon splendens, Augochlorella aurata, A. gratiosa, Augochloropsis sumptuosa

Megachilidae: Anthidiellum perplexum, Anthidium maculifrons, Coelioxys sayi, Megachile brevis pseudobrevis, M. mendica, M. petulans

Vespidae: Euodynerus boscii boharti, Monobia quadridens, Parancistrocerus histrio, P. salcularis rufulus, Pseudodynerus quadrisectus, Stenodynerus fundatiformis, Zethus spinipes

Conservation and management

Cultivation and restoration

Photo Gallery

References and notes

  1. Weakley, A. S. (2015). Flora of the Southern and Mid-Atlantic States. Chapel Hill, NC, University of North Carolina Herbarium.
  2. [IFAS Extension] Accessed: December 2, 2015
  3. Webster, G. W.. Insectivorous Plants of South Florida. Science 22.546 (1893): 37–38.
  4. Kron, Kathleen A.. Phylogenetic Relationships of Rhododendroideae (Ericaceae). American Journal of Botany 84.7 (1997): 973–980.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 [IFAS Extension] Accessed: December 2, 2015
  6. 6.0 6.1 Florida State University Robert K. Godfrey Herbarium database. URL: http://herbarium.bio.fsu.edu. Last accessed: October 2015. Collectors: Michael B. Brooks, R.K. Godfrey, R. Kral, Sidney McDaniel, Jean W. Wooten. States and Counties: Florida: Dixie, Highlands, Palm Beach, St. Johns. Compiled by Tall Timbers Research Station and Land Conservancy.
  7. [Natives for your neighborhood] Accessed: December 2, 2015.
  8. [Florida Native Plant Society]Accessed December 2, 2015
  9. 9.0 9.1 Lindon, H. L. and E. Menges (2008). "Scientific note: effects of smoke on seed germination of twenty species of fire-prone habitats in Florida." Castanea 73: 106-110.
  10. Deyrup, M.A. 2015. Database of observations of Hymenoptera visitations to flowers of plants on Archbold Biological Station, Florida, USA.