Balduina angustifolia

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Balduina angustifolia
Bald angu.jpg
Photo by Karan A. Rawlins, University of Georgia,
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta - Flowering plants
Class: Magnoliopsida - Dicotyledons
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae ⁄ Compositae
Genus: Balduina
Species: B. angustifolia
Binomial name
Balduina angustifolia
(Pursh) B.L. Rob.
Bald angu dist.jpg
Natural range of Balduina angustifolia from USDA NRCS Plants Database.

Common name: Coastal plain honeycombhead

Taxonomic notes

Synonyms: Actinospermum angustifolium (Pursh) Torrey & A. Gray; (Buphthalmum angustifolium Pursh The Flora of North America).


A description of Balduina angustifolia is provided in The Flora of North America.

The genus Balduina is characterized by receptacular bractlets connected in a honeycomb like structure surrounding the achene.[1] It is a biennial species that forms a basal rosette the first year and a leafy flowering stem the second year.[2] It can grow up to 4-5 feet in height, with many side branches near the top.[3]




In the Coastal Plain in Florida, B. angustifolia has been found in sand dunes; turkey oak sand ridges; pine scrubs; rosemary-oak scrubs; scrub oak-longleaf pine ridges; wiregrass/longleaf pine sandhills; pine flatwoods; bordering sidestreams; open woodlands; and xeric oak/saw palmetto scrubs.[4] There are greater populations of B. angustifolia in bare, open sands than in sites with shrubs or litter, making it a gap specialist.[5] It is early successional species and has been found to have a greater population growth in degraded scrubs compared to intact scrubs.[5] In a study conducted by Petru and Menges (2004) found that B. angustifolia responded to an experimental sand removal by elongating the flowering stems. It has been found in disturbed areas such as roadsides, highways, powerline corridors, bulldozed scrub oak ridges and clobbered slash pine forests.[4][6] Soil types include deep sand and loamy sand.[4] Associated species include Gaillardia, Pityopsis, Polygonella, Chrysoma, Ceratiola ericoides, Liatris, Leptoloma cognata, Pinus clausa, and Quercus virginiana.[4]

Sandhill and scrub habitats have a low availability of inorganic nutrients such as phosphorous causing B. angustifolia to depend on mycorrhizal fungi colonization on the taproot system.[2]


Both the disc and ray flowers are yellow, with the ripe disc flowers forming a grey honeycomb shape seed.[3] The ripe seed can remain attached to the stem for months, allowing for favorable germination conditions in late winter and early spring.[3] It has been observed flowering August through November, with its peak inflorescence in October, and fruiting September and October.[4][7]

Fire ecology

Following a fire, the first year rosettes were unable to survive or resprout, making it a fire-sensitive biennial.[2] However, populations have been found to later re-establish on a burn site from seed.[2]


The following Hymenoptera families and species were observed visiting flowers of Balduina angustifolia at Archbold Biological Station:[8]

Andrenidae: Andrena fulvipennis

Apidae: Apis mellifera, Bombus impatiens, B. pennsylvanicus, Nomada fervida, Svastra aegis, Triepiolus concavus

Halictidae: Agapostemon splendens, Augochlora pura, Augochlorella aurata, Augochloropsis metallica, A. sumptuosa, Dieunomia heteropoda, Halictus poeyi, Lasioglossum coreopsis, L. miniatulus, L. nymphalis. L. pectoralis, L. puteulanum

Megachilidae: Anthidiellum perplexum, Coelioxys dolichos, C. germana, C. mexicana, C. modesta, C. sayi, C. texana, Dolichostelis louisae, Megachile albitarsis, M. brevis pseudobrevis, M. georgica, M. inimica, M. mendica, M. petulans, M. policaris, M. pruina, M. texana, M. xylocopoides, Trachusa fontemvitae

Sphecidae: Bembix sayi, Bicyrtes capnoptera, Ectemnius rufipes ais' Philanthus ventilabris

Vespidae: Mischocyttarus cubensis, Pachodynerus erynnis, Zethus slossonae

Use by animals

It is common in areas of soil disturbance produced by gopher tortoises.[2]

Conservation and management

Global conservation status: G5.[9]

Cultivation and restoration

Photo Gallery

References and notes

  1. Small, J.K. 1933. Manual of the Southeaster flora. New York.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Anderson, R. C. and E. S. Menges (1997). "Effects of fire on sandhill herbs: nutrients, mycorrhizae, and biomass allocation." American Journal of Botany 84: 938-948.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 [Native Florida Wildflowers] Accessed December 1, 2015
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Florida State University Robert K. Godfrey Herbarium database. URL: Last accessed: October 2015. Collectors: William P. Adams, Jame Amoroso, Loran C. Anderson, Robert Blaisdell, K.E. Blum, A.F. Clewell, George R. Cooley, Richard J. Eaton, R.K. Godfrey, H.E. Grelen, Bruce Hansen, JoAnn Hansen, Richard D. Houk, R. Kral, Bob Lazor, S.W. Leonard, Sidney McDaniel, Thomas E. Miller, J.B. Morrill, Putnam, James D. Ray Jr., Siri von Reis, Paul L. Redfearn Jr., Paul O. Schallert, Victoria I. Sullivan, Bian Tan, E.L. Tyson, Jean Wooten. States and Counties: Florida: Bay, Broward, Calhoun, Collier, Columbia, Clay, Columbia, Dixie, Escambia, Franklin, Hernando, Highlands, Jackson, Lafayette, Lee, Levy, Liberty, Madison, Manatee, Martin, Okaloosa, Osceola, Pinellas, Polk, Putnam, Santa Rosa, Sarasota, Seminole, Suwannee, Taylor, Walton, Wakulla. Compiled by Tall Timbers Research Station and Land Conservancy.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Stephens, E. L., M. R. Tye, et al. (2014). "Habitat and microsite influence demography of two herbs in intact and degraded scrub." Population Ecology 56(3): 447-461.
  6. Petru, M. and E. S. Menges (2004). "Shifting sands in Florida scrub gaps and roadsides: Dynamic microsites for herbs." American Midland Naturalist 151(1): 101-113.
  7. Nelson, G. PanFlora: Plant data for the eastern United States with emphasis on the Southeastern Coastal Plains, Florida, and the Florida Panhandle. Accessed: 7 DEC 2016
  8. Deyrup, M.A. 2015. Database of observations of Hymenoptera visitations to flowering plants on Archbold Biological Station, Florida, USA.
  9. [NatureServe] Accessed: December 1, 2015