|Photo taken by Gil Nelson|
|Division:||Magnoliophyta - Flowering plants|
|Class:||Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons|
|Family:||Asteraceae ⁄ Compositae|
| Trilisa odoratissima|
(J.F. Gmel.) Herb.
|Natural range of Trilisa odoratissima from USDA NRCS Plants Database.|
Common names: Vanillaleaf, Deer's-tongue
Synonyms: Carphephorus odoratissimus; Carphephorus odoratissimus (J.F. Gmelin) Herbert var. odoratissimus; Trilisa odoratissima var. odoratissima
A description of Trilisa odoratissima is provided in The Flora of North America.
It is found in frequently burned pine flatwoods or dry prairies  and moist areas, depressions, and seepages within burned upland longleaf pine-wiregrass communities  and oak-pine woodlands on Ultisols, as well as sand ridges within flatwoods and pine-saw palmettos.  It was absent from the seed bank in disturbed and undisturbed sites in North Carolina.  It occurs primarily on sandy and drying loamy soils.  It is found in disturbed areas such as roadsides, fields, and ditches as well as undisturbed sites.   Associated species include Quercus, Pinus, Pinus elliottii, Sabal palmetto, and Aristida stricta. 
Trilisa odoratissima is restricted to native groundcover with a statistical affinity in upland pinelands of South Georgia.  While this species is found in the uplands, it is found in the lowlands as well (FSU Herbarium).
It has been seen flowering September through November and fruiting in October through November. 
The following Hymenoptera families and species were observed visiting flowers of T odoratissima at Archbold Biological Station: 
Apidae: Bombus pennsylvanicus
Halictidae: Augochlorella aurata, Halictus poeyi
Megachilidae: Coelioxys octodentata, C. sayi, Dianthidium floridiense, Megachile albitarsis, M. inimica
Conservation and management
Cultivation and restoration
References and notes
- Carrington, M. E. and J. J. Mullahey (2013). "Saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) flowering and fruiting response to time since fire." Rangeland Ecology & Management 66: 43-50.
- Kirkman, L. K., M. B. Drew, et al. (1998). "Effects of experimental fire regimes on the population dynamics of Schwalbea americana L." Plant Ecology 137: 115-137.
- Florida State University Robert K. Godfrey Herbarium database. URL: http://herbarium.bio.fsu.edu. Last accessed: June 2014. Collectors: L. C. Anderson, E. L. Bridges, E. H. Butts, A. F. Clewell, R. K. Godfrey, R. D. Houk, R. Komarek, R. Kral, R. L. Lazor, J. Morrill, R. A. Norris, S. L. Orzell, J. D. Ray Jr., P. L. Redfearn Jr., V. I. Sullivan and R. White. States and Counties: Florida: Bay, Duval, Escambia, Franklin, Gadsden, Gulf, Holmes, Jefferson, Lafayette, Leon, Liberty, Madison, Nassau, Okaloosa, Pasco, Polk, Putnam, Santa Rosa, Taylor, Wakulla, and Walton. Georgia: Grady and Thomas.
- Cohen, S., R. Braham, et al. (2004). "Seed bank viability in disturbed longleaf pine sites." Restoration Ecology 12: 503-515.
- Ostertag, T.E., and K.M. Robertson. 2007. A comparison of native versus old-field vegetation in upland pinelands managed with frequent fire, South Georgia, USA. Pages 109–120 in R.E. Masters and K.E.M. Galley (eds.). Proceedings of the 23rd Tall Timbers Fire Ecology Conference: Fire in Grassland and Shrubland Ecosystems.
- Kush, J. S., R. S. Meldahl, et al. (1999). "Understory plant community response after 23 years of hardwood control treatments in natural longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) forests." Canadian Journal of Forest Research 29: 1047-1054.
- Deyrup, M.A. 2015. Database of observations of Hymenoptera visitations to flowers of plants on Archbold Biological Station, Florida, USA.