Tetragonotheca helianthoides

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Tetragonotheca helianthoides
Tetragonotheca helianthoides MS.jpg
Photo taken by Michelle M. Smith
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class: Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae ⁄ Compositae
Genus: Tetragonotheca
Species: T. helianthoides
Binomial name
Tetragonotheca helianthoides
TETR HELI dist.jpg
Natural range of Tetragonotheca helianthoides from USDA NRCS Plants Database.

Common names: Pineland nerveray, Pineland-ginseng, Squarehead

Taxonomic notes


A description of Tetragonotheca helianthoides is provided in The Flora of North America.




In the Coastal Plain in Florida, T. helianthoides has been found growing in the shade of a oak-hickory forest; loamy sand along the edge of a oak-pine-sassafras secondary woodland; loamy sand along wet pine flatwoods; scrub oak woods; mixed oak woodland; mixed deciduous flatwoods; longleaf pine slope above a Chamaecyparis thicket; scrub oak sandridge; wet depressions; burned longleaf pinewoods; sandy oak-pine forested uplands; loamy sand of pine-oak slopes above small seepage slopes; pine-turkey oak woods; and slash pine-scrub oak flats; and the ecotone between mixed hardwoods and fire-maintained pine-oak woods.[1][2] It has been observed to grow in disturbed habitats such as powerline corridors, open fields, and roadside ditches.

Substrate types include sand, red sandy soil, gravel, and loamy sand.[1] Associated species include Myrica, Liquidambar, and Chamaecyparis.[1]


It has been observed flowering and fruiting April through July.[1][3]

Fire ecology

Arata noted that T. helianthoides appeared in late May/ early June after burning in mid-winter.[4]

Conservation, cultivation, and restoration

Cultural use

Photo Gallery

References and notes

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Florida State University Robert K. Godfrey Herbarium database. URL: http://herbarium.bio.fsu.edu. Last accessed: July 2015. Collectors: Loran C. Anderson, Gary R. Knight, R.K. Godfrey, Sidney McDaniel, D. B. Ward, D. Burch, Richard S. Mitchell, B. L. Turner, R. Kral, Wilson Baker, William T. Gillis, Ira L. Wiggins, Dorothy B. Wiggins, Gwynn W. Ramsey, H. L. Stripling, Carol H. Beck, Robert F. Martin, R. A. Norris, R. Komarek, Lisa Keppner, Bill Boothe, Marcia Boothe, Annie Schmidt, A. Johnson, M. Jenkins, B. Cole Irvin. States and Counties: Florida: Alachua, Calhoun, Columbia, Escambia, Gadsden, Holmes, Jackson, Lafayette, Lake, Leon, Madison, Marion, Santa Rosa, Wakulla, Walton, Washington. Georgia: Grady. Compiled by Tall Timbers Research Station and Land Conservancy.
  2. Heuberger, K. A. and F. E. Putz. 2003. Fire in the suburbs: ecological impacts of prescribed fire in small remnants of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) sandhill. Restoration Ecology 11:72-81.
  3. Nelson, G. PanFlora: Plant data for the eastern United States with emphasis on the Southeastern Coastal Plains, Florida, and the Florida Panhandle. www.gilnelson.com/PanFlora/ Accessed: 19 MAY 2021
  4. Arata, A. A. 1959. Effects of burning on vegetation and rodent populations in a longleaf pine-turkey oak association in north central Florida. Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 22:94-104.