Tephrosia chrysophylla

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Tephrosia chrysophylla
Teph chry.jpg
Photo by Shirley Denton (Copyrighted, use by photographer’s permission only), Nature Photography by Shirley Denton
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta - Flowering plants
Class: Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae ⁄ Leguminosae
Genus: Tephrosia
Species: T. chrysophylla
Binomial name
Tephrosia chrysophylla
Pursh
Teph chry dist.jpg
Natural range of Tephrosia chrysophylla from USDA NRCS Plants Database.

Common names: Scurf hoarypea, Sprawling goat's-rue

Taxonomic notes

Synonyms: Cracca chrysophylla (Pursh) Kuntze; Cracca carpenteri Rydberg; Cracca chapmanii (Vail) Small

Description

Perennial herbs, stems woody below, or from woody crown or caudex. Taproot present. Nodules present. Stems prostrate, trailing, or mat forming, less than 1 m tall. Stems solid, sparsely to densely hairy, stem hairs hispid to villous. Stipules inconspicuous, absent, or caducous; setiform, subulate or acicular; persistent, free. Leaves alternate, petiolate, compound, odd pinnate, leaf or leaflet margins entire, opposite, 5-9 in number, hairy on one or both surfaces. Inflorescences are racemes, terminal, leaf-opposed. Bracts conspicuously present. Flowers zygomorphic. Calyx 5-lobed, hairy. Petals separate, clawed, color white, pinkish to rose, blue, lavender to purple, or violet, though typically white in the sandhills of northern Florida, bicolored or with red, purple or yellow streaks or spots, typically pink stripes in the sandhills of northern Florida. Banner petal ovoid or obovate, petal suborbicular, broadly rounded. Wing petals narrow, oblanceolate to oblong, auriculate. Wing tips obtuse or rounded. Keel petals auriculate, spurred, or gibbous. Keel tips obtuse or rounded, not beaked. Stamens 9-10, diadelphous, 9 united, 1 free. Filaments glabrous. Style terete, sharply bent, hairy on one side only. Fruit a legume, unilocular, freely dehiscent, elongate, straight, exserted from calyx. Valves twisting or coiling after dehiscence. Fruit beaked, hairy, 3-10 seeded. Seeds ovoid to rounded in outline, surface smooth, color olive, brown, or black, surface mottled or patchy.[1]

Distribution

Florida, Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi. Critically imperiled in Georgia.[2]

Ecology

Habitat

In the Coastal Plain, T. chrysophylla habitats include longleaf pine-oak-wiregrass woodlands, sand pine scrubs, pine/wiregrass communities, scrub oak wiregrass sandhills, and upland turkey oak longleaf pinewoods. It has been found in disturbed areas such as along logging roads, a clear cut disturbed longleaf pine scrub oak ridge, an open sand ridge plowed three years previously, a bulldozed clearing in turkey oak longleaf pine, a sandy old quarry, a clobbered slash pine forest, and coarse sandy clearing of longleaf pine scrub oak barren. Soil types include loamy sand, sand, and sandy peat.[3] Associated species include Balduina angustifolia, Dalea feayi, and Polygonella robusta.[4]

Phenology

T. chrysophylla has been observed to flower June through September with peak inflorescence in August and fruiting May through October.[3][5]

Fire ecology

It has been observed growing in burned pine flatwoods.[3]

Pollination

The following Hymenoptera families and species were observed visiting flowers of Tephrosia chrysophylla at Archbold Biological Station: [6]

Halictidae: Nomia maneei

Megachilidae: Megachile brimleyi, M. georgica

Flowers develop pink striation after being pollinated.[7]

Conservation and management

Cultivation and restoration

Photo Gallery

References and notes

Florida State University Robert K. Godfrey Herbarium database. URL: http://herbarium.bio.fsu.edu. Last accessed: November 2015. Collectors: Loran C. Anderson, A.F. Clewell, M. Davis, Robert K. Godfrey, Ann F. Johnson, R. Komarek, Robert Kral, Robert L. Lazor, K. MacClendon, R.S. Mitchell, Gwynn W. Ramsey, H.R. Reed, Grady W. Reinert, Cecil R. Slaughter, John K. Small, D.B. Ward States and Counties: Alabama: Covington, Geneva. Florida: Calhoun, Citrus, Dixie, Duval, Escambia, Franklin, Gadsden, Gilchrist, Gulf, Hernando, Highlands, Leon, Liberty, Okaloosa, Putnam, Suwannee, Taylor, Wakulla, Walton. Georgia: Grady. Mississippi: Poplarville. Compiled by Tall Timbers Research Station and Land Conservancy.
  1. [[1]]Encyclopedia of Life. Accessed: March 17, 2016
  2. [[2]]NatureServe. Accessed: March 17, 2016
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Florida State University Robert K. Godfrey Herbarium database. URL: http://herbarium.bio.fsu.edu. Last accessed: November 2015. Collectors: Loran C. Anderson, A.F. Clewell, M. Davis, Robert K. Godfrey, Ann F. Johnson, R. Komarek, Robert Kral, Robert L. Lazor, K. MacClendon, R.S. Mitchell, Gwynn W. Ramsey, H.R. Reed, Grady W. Reinert, Cecil R. Slaughter, John K. Small, D.B. Ward States and Counties: Alabama: Covington, Geneva. Florida: Calhoun, Citrus, Dixie, Duval, Escambia, Franklin, Gadsden, Gilchrist, Gulf, Hernando, Highlands, Leon, Liberty, Okaloosa, Putnam, Suwannee, Taylor, Wakulla, Walton. Georgia: Grady. Mississippi: Poplarville. Compiled by Tall Timbers Research Station and Land Conservancy.
  4. [[3]]idigbio. Accessed: March 16, 2016
  5. Nelson, G. PanFlora: Plant data for the eastern United States with emphasis on the Southeastern Coastal Plains, Florida, and the Florida Panhandle. www.gilnelson.com/PanFlora/ Accessed: 14 DEC 2016
  6. Deyrup, M.A. and N.D. 2015. Database of observations of Hymenoptera visitations to flowers of plants on Archbold Biological Station, Florida, USA.
  7. Campbell, Joshua. Observation posted to Florida Flora and Ecosystematics Facebook Group on October 8, 2016.