Solidago odora

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Solidago odora
Solidago odora Gil.jpg
Photo was taken by Gil Nelson
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class: Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae ⁄ Compositae
Genus: Solidago
Species: S. odora
Binomial name
Solidago odora
Aiton
SOLI ODOR dist.jpg
Natural range of Solidago odora from USDA NRCS Plants Database.

Common names: Anisescented goldenrod, Sweet goldenrod, Licorice goldenrod

Taxonomic notes

Synonyms: Solidago odora var. odora; S. odora ssp. odora

Description

A description of Solidago odora is provided in The Flora of North America.

Distribution

Ecology

Habitat

In the Coastal Plain region, S. odora can be found in sandhills, slashpine savannas, longleaf pine-scrub oak ridges, loblolly pine-sweetgum stands, longleaf pine-wiregrass sand ridges, depression marshes, edges of wetlands, sand dunes, live oak woodlands,[1] annually burned pinelands. [2] [3] [1] xeric areas,[4] longleaf pine savannas,[5] [1] and scrub communities. [1] [6] It can also be found in cut over fields, disturbed savannas, bulldozed pines, old fields, cut and slashed slash pine forests, vacant beach lots, cut over sandridges,[1] and roadsides.[2] [1] Soils include sandy loam, loamy sand, sandy clay, red sandy clay, and sandy peat.[5] [1] Associated species include Liatris, Panicum, Leptoloma cognata, Pityopsis graminifolia, Quercus minima, Q. laevis, Phyla nodiflora, Solidago puberula, Asclepias, Scutellaria floridana, Balduina, and Sporobolus. [1]

Phenology

S. odora has been observed to flower in January and March through November and fruit June through November.[1][7] S. odora var. chapmanii often blooms in late summer and fall (July through October), though some bloom in spring. [6]

Seed dispersal

This species is thought to be dispersed by wind. [8]

Seed bank and germination

S. odora var. chapmanii does not seem to form a large persistent seed bank. [6] However, S. odora had a 12% germination rate in an experiment by Coffey and Kirkman and in the second year after burial, S. oodora showed that the seed bank can persist at least two years. [9] Between fires, S. odora var. chapmanii can persist as suppressed ramets (a persistent bud bank), which can give it an advantage over competitors. [6]

Fire ecology

It thrives in the years post-fire. [4] Lewis and Harshbarger found out that S. odora responded positively to a wide variety of long-term burning treatments, which responded the best to periodic summer and biennial summer burnings. [10]S. odora was not present in the unburned control plot. [10] After fire, S. odora var. chapmanii can regenerate by seedlings, clonal ramets, or resprouting. [6] It is thought that timing of fires may affect subsequent flowering. Flowering occurred abundantly in most plots during the year following fire, but experienced a marked decline afterwards. [6]

Pollination

The following Hymenoptera families and species were observed visiting flowers of Solidago odora at Archbold Biological Station. [11]

Apidae: Apis mellifera, Bombus impatiens, Nomada fervida, Xylocopa virginica krombeini

Colletidae: Colletes mandibularis

Halictidae: Agapostemon splendens, Augochlorella aurata, Augochloropsis metallica, A. sumptuosa, Halictus poeyi, Lasioglossum coreopsis, L. nymphalis, L. placidensis, Sphecodes heraclei

Leucospidae: Leucospis slossonae, L. affinis, L. robertsoni, L. slossonae

Megachilidae: Anthidiellum perplexus, Coelioxys sayi, Dianthidium floridiense, Dolichostelis louisiae, Megachile albitarsis, M. mendica, M. texana

Pompilidae: Anoplius atrox, Paracyphonyx funereus

Sphecidae: Ammophila urnaria, Bembix sayi, Bicyrtes capnoptera, B. quadrifasciata, Cerceris blakei, C. flavofasciata floridensis, C. fumipennis, Ectemnius decemmaculatus tequesta, Isodontia auripes, I. exornata, Oxybelus decorosum, Palmodes dimidiatus, Philanthus ventilabris, Prionyx thomae, Stictiella serrata, Tachytes grisselli, T. guatemalensis, T. pepticus, T. validus

Vespidae: Eumenes fraternus, E. smithii, Euodynerus boscii boharti, E. megaera, Pachodinerus erynnis, Pachodynerus erynnis, Parancistrocerus salcularis rufulus, Pseudodynerus quadrisectus, Stenodynerus fundatiformis, S. histrionalis rufustus, S. lineatifrons, S. oculeus, S. pulvinatus surrufus, Zethus spinipes

Use by animals

Many herbivores, including certain species of beetles, moths, rodents, and rabbits, feed on S. odora var. chapmanii. [6] Deyrup observed these bees, Colletes mandibularis, Perdita graenicheri, Agapostemon splendens, Augochlorella aurata, Augochloropsis metallica, A. sumptuosa, Diialictus coreopsis, D. nymphalis, D. placidensis, Halictus ligatus, Sphecodes heraclei, Dianthidium floridiense, Megachile albitarsis, M. mendica, M. texana, Apis mellifera, on Solidago odora var. chapmanii. [12]

Conservation and management

Cultivation and restoration

Photo Gallery

References and notes

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 Florida State University Robert K. Godfrey Herbarium database. URL: http://herbarium.bio.fsu.edu. Last accessed: July 2015. Collectors: Travis MacClendon, Karen MacClendon, B. Boothe, M. Boothe, Bian Tan, Brenda Herring, Jame Amoroso, Loran C. Anderson, Gwynn W. Ramsey, R.K. Godfrey, R. S. Mitchell, Paul L. Redfearn, Jr., Angus Gholson, George R. Cooley, Richard J. Eaton, James D. Ray, Jr., R L Lazor, V. I. Sullivan, A. F. Clewell, R. Kral, H. E. Grelen, Gary R. Knight, R. A. Norris, R. Komarek, Cecil R Slaughter, S. W. Leonard, R. E. Perdue, Jr., Richard D. Houk, James D. Ray, Jr., Olga Lakela, Jackie Patman, Melanie R. Darst. States and Counties: Florida: Alachua, Calhoun, Clay, Columbia, Dixie, Escambia, Franklin, Gadsden, Gulf, Hernando, Highland, Hillsborough, Jackson, Jefferson, Leon, Liberty, Marion, Martin, Okaloosa, Osceola, Pasco, Pinellas, Polk, Santa Roasa, Seminole, St. Johns, St. Lucie, Suwannee, Taylor, Wakulla, Walton, Washington. Georgia: Camden, Grady, Thomas. Compiled by Tall Timbers Research Station and Land Conservancy.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Boerner, R. E. J. (1981). "Forest structure dynamics following wildfire and prescribed burning in the New Jersey pine barrens." American Midland Naturalist 105: 321-333.
  3. Brewer, J. S. and S. P. Cralle (2003). "Phosphorus addition reduces invasion of a longleaf pine savanna (southeastern USA) by a non-indigenous grass (Imperata cylindrica)." Plant Ecology 167: 237-245.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Harrod, J. C., M. E. Harmon, et al. (2000). "Post-fire succession and 20th century reduction in fire frequency on xeric southern Appalachian sites." Journal of Vegetation Science 11: 465-472.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Drewa, P. B., J. M. Thaxton, et al. (2006). "Responses of root-crown bearing shrubs to differences in fire regimes in Pinus palustris (Longleaf pine) savannas: exploring old-growth questions in second-growth systems." Applied Vegetation Science 9: 27-36.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 Menges, E. S. and R. B. Root (2004). "The life of a fire-adapted Florida goldenrod, Solidago odora var. chapmanii." American Midland Naturalist 151: 65-78.
  7. Nelson, G. PanFlora: Plant data for the eastern United States with emphasis on the Southeastern Coastal Plains, Florida, and the Florida Panhandle. www.gilnelson.com/PanFlora/ Accessed: 14 DEC 2016
  8. Kirkman, L. Katherine. Unpublished database of seed dispersal mode of plants found in Coastal Plain longleaf pine-grasslands of the Jones Ecological Research Center, Georgia.
  9. Coffey, K. L. and L. K. Kirkman (2006). "Seed germination strategies of species with restoration potential in a fire-maintained pine savanna." Natural Areas Journal 26: 289-299.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Lewis, C. E. and T. J. Harshbarger (1976). "Shrub and herbaceous vegetation after 20 years of prescribed burning in the South Carolina coastal plain." Journal of Range Management 29: 13-18.
  11. Deyrup, M.A. and N.D. 2015. Database of observations of Hymenoptera visitations to flowers of plants on Archbold Biological Station, Florida, USA.
  12. Deyrup, M. and L. Deyrup (2012). "The diversity of insects visiting flowers of saw palmetto (Arecaceae)." Florida Entomologist 95(3): 711-730.