|Photo by John Hilty hosted at IllinoisWildflowers.info|
|Division:||Magnoliophyta - Flowering plants|
|Class:||Liliopsida - Moncots|
| Smilax hispida|
|Natural range of Smilax hispida from Weakley. Natural range of Acer rubrum from USDA NRCS Plants Database.|
Synonym: S. tamnoides; S. tamnoides 'var. hispida (Muhlenberg) Fernald
Varieties: S. hispida var. hispida; S. hispida var. australis
Smilax hispida is a monoecious perennial that grows as a shrub or vine. As a vine, it frequently climps 30-45 ft (9.1-13.7 m) into trees has internodes on the main stem 4-10 in (10.2-25.4 cm) apart. Stems are usually very prickly. In central eastern Illinois, it averages 13 stems and its seeds have a mean mass of 23.690 mg.
Both solitary (burned once) and recurring (biennial) burns reduced the average percent cover of S. hispida on a red and white pine mixed plantation in Kalamazoo County, Michigan during 1991-1995.
Conservation and Management
Cultivation and restoration
References and notes
- Weakley AS (2015) Flora of the Southern and Mid-Atlantic States. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Herbarium.
- USDA NRCS (2016) The PLANTS Database (http://plants.usda.gov, 23 January 2018). National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC 27401-4901 USA.
- Schaffner JH (1931) Characteristic examples of accumulative progressive evolutionary movements: Studies in determinate evolution, V. Ohio Journal of Science 31(5):346-367.
- Michaels HJ, Benner B, Hartgerink AP, Lee TD, Rice S, Willson MF, Bertin RI (1988) Seed size variation: magnitude, distribution, and ecological correlates. Evolutionary Ecology 2:157-166.
- Zhao Y, Qi Z, Ma W, Dai Q, Li P, Cameron KM, Lee J, Xiang Q, Fu C (2013) Comparative phylogeography of Smilax hispida group (Smilacaceae) in eastern Asia and North America - Implications for allopatric speciation, causes of diversity disparity, and origins of temperate elements in Mexico. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 68:300-311.
- Hutchinson T (2005) Fire and the herbaceous layer of eastern oak forests. Proceedings of Fire in Eastern Oak Forests: Delivering science to land managers. Nov 15-17, 2005, Columbus, OH. USDA Forest Service, General Technical Report NRS-P-1, pp. 136-149
- Neumann DD, Dickmann DI (2001) Surface burning in a mature stand of Pinus resinosa and Pinus strobus in Michigan: effects on understory vegetation. International Journal of Wildland Fire 10:91-101.