Salix humilis

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Common names: Prairie willow, Dwarf willow, Upland willow

Salix humilis
Salix humilis.jpg
Salix humilis with Viceroy butterfly just enclosed from chrysalis. Wade Tract, GA. Photo by Kevin Robertson
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta - Flowering plants
Class: Magnoliopsida - Dicotyledons
Order: Salicales
Family: Salicaceae
Genus: Salix
Species: S. humilis
Binomial name
Salix humilis
SALI HUMI dist.jpg
Natural range of Salix humilis from the Ladybird Johnson Wildflower Database.

Taxonomic notes

Synonyms: none Varieties: Salix humilis var. humilis; S. humilis var. hyporhysa Fernald


"Catkins firms, not pendulous. Staminate flower with 2-8 stamens subtended by 1 or 2 glands. Leaves usually more than 3X as long as wide; buds with 1 scale. Capsule basically ovoid."[1]

"Shrub; branchlets usually cinereous. Leaves glabrous above, glaucous and usually pubescent beneath, coarsely reticulate, oblanceolate, obovate, or elliptic, 1.5-11.5 cm long, 0.6-3 cm wide, acute or obtuse, entire or undulate-crenulate, revolute, base cuneate petioles usually pubescent, 1-9 mm long. Stamens 2, filaments glabrous. Fruiting catkins 1.5-3 cm long, 15-18 mm broad, subsessile; capsules grayish, pubescent, 7-9 mm long, pedicels 1-2 mm long."[1]




S. humilis has been found in pine flatwoods, pond shorelines, and areas with loamy sand.[2] It is also found in disturbed areas including burned pine woods, under utility lines, and along hiking trails.[2]

Associated species: Pinus palutris, P. elliottii, and Cyrilla parviflora.[2]

Fire ecology

Populations of Salix humilis have been known to persist through repeated annual burning.[3]


Salix humilis has been observed to host a variety of bees species. More specifically, the bees observed were members of the Andrenidae family such as Andrena arabis, A. bisalicis, A. carlini, A. cressonii, A. fenningeri, A. forbesii, A. frigida, A. hilaris, A. imitatrix, A. mandibularis, A. miserabilis, A. nasonii, A. nigrihirta, A. rugosa, A. sigmundi, A. tridens and A. vicina, members of the Apidae family such as Apis mellifera, Nomada bella, N. luteoloides and N. xanthura, Cavariella sp. (family Aphididae), members of the Halictidae family such as Augochlora pura, A. aurata, Halictus ligatus, Lasioglossum acuminatum, L. bruneri, L. coeruleum, L. coriaceum, L. cressonii, L. imitatum, L. leucocomum, L. paradmirandum, L. versatum, Sphecodes aroniae and S. minor, and members of the Megachilidae family Osmia atriventris and O. lignaria.[4]

Conservation, cultivation, and restoration

Cultural use

Photo Gallery

References and notes

  1. 1.0 1.1 Radford, Albert E., Harry E. Ahles, and C. Ritchie Bell. Manual of the Vascular Flora of the Carolinas. 1964, 1968. The University of North Carolina Press. 358. Print.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Florida State University Herbarium Database. URL: Last accessed: June 2021. Collectors: Loran C. Anderson, R. F. Doren, Robert K. Godfrey, R. Komarek, R. Kral, and William Platt. States and counties: Alabama: Talladega. Florida: Leon and Taylor. Georgia: Grady and Thomas.
  3. Platt, W.J., R. Carter, G. Nelson, W. Baker, S. Hermann, J. Kane, L. Anderson, M. Smith, K. Robertson. 2021. Unpublished species list of Wade Tract old-growth longleaf pine savanna, Thomasville, Georgia.
  4. [1]