Rudbeckia hirta

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Common name: Coastal Plain black-eyed susan[1], black-eyed susan[2]

Rudbeckia hirta
Rudbeckia hirta.jpg
Photo by Kevin Robertson
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta - Flowering plants
Class: Magnoliopsida - Dicots
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae
Genus: Rudbeckia
Species: R. hirta
Binomial name
Rudbeckia hirta
Natural range of Rudbeckia hirta from USDA NRCS Plants Database.

Taxonomic Notes

Synonyms: none

Varieties: R. hirta Linnaeus var. angustifolia (T.V. Moore) Perdue; R. hirta Linnaeus var. hirta; R hirta Linnaeus var. pulcherrima Farwell


R. hirta is an annual/biennial/perennial forb/herb of the Asteraceae family native to North America and Canada and introduced to Alaska.[2]


R. hirta is found in all of the United States excluding Nevada and Arizona, all regions of Canada, and Alaska.[2]



R. hirta proliferates in fields and roadsides.[1] Specimens have been collected from loamy sands at edge od woodland, open woodland, moist roadsides, dry pine woods and fields, moist sandy peat of savannah, longleaf pine wiregrass savanna, saw palmetto flats, old fields, holding ponds, red clay soils, cedar glade, edge of rivers, wet boggy sites, prairie, mixed woods, creek bottoms, slash pine plantation, and other disturbed wet regions.[3] R. hirta is an indicator species for the Clayhill Longleaf Woodlands community type as described in Carr et al. (2010).[4]

R. hirta became absent in response to soil disturbance by agriculture in southwest Georgia. It has shown resistance to regrowth in reestablished savanna habitats that were disturbed by agriculture.[5]


R. hirta has been observed to flower from March to November with peak inflorescence in June.[6]

Seed dispersal

This species is thought to be dispersed by gravity.[7]

Fire ecology

R. hirta is not fire resistant, but has medium fire tolerance[2] as shown in populations that have been known to persist through repeated annual burns.[8][9]


Bees have been observed visiting this species.[10]

Herbivory and toxicology

Rudbeckia hirta has been observed to host bees from the Andrenidae family such as Andrena miranda, A. rudbeckiae, A. thaspii, A. wilkella and Pseudopanurgus albitarsis, as well as Uroleucon sp. (family Aphididae), members of the Apidae family such as Bombus citrinus, Epeolus bifasciatus, E. canadensis, Melissodes confusa, M. denticulata, M. druriella, M. illata, M. sp., M. subillatus, M. trinodis, Nomada cressonii, Triepeolus donatus, T. lunatus, T. michiganensis and T. remigatus, members of the Halictidae family such as Augochlorella aurata, Halictus confusus, H. ligatus, Lasioglossum sp., L. admirandum, L. cinctipes, L. coreopsis, L. creberrimum, L. hitchensi, L. pectorale, L. perpunctatum, L. versatum and Sphecodes heraclei, members of the Megachilidae family such as Coelioxys alternata, Megachile fidelis, Megachile latimanus, Megachile mendica, Megachile petulans, Megachile policaris, Megachile pugnata, Megachile relativa and Megachile xylocopoides, as well as true bugs such as Apiomerus crassipes (family Reduviidae).[11]

Conservation, cultivation, and restoration

R. hirta is listed as a weedy or invasive species by the Southern Weed Science Society.[2] This species should avoid soil disturbance by agriculture to conserve its presence in pine communities.[5]

Cultural use

Photo Gallery

References and notes

  1. 1.0 1.1 Weakley, A. S. (2015). Flora of the Southern and Mid-Atlantic States. Chapel Hill, NC, University of North Carolina Herbarium.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 USDA Plant Database
  3. URL: Last accessed: June 2018. Collectors: Loran C. Anderson, M.R. Darst, S.F. Blake, Robert Kral, A.H. Curtiss, George R. Cooley, Carroll E. Wood, Kenneth A. Wilson, P.L. Redfearn, J.B. Nelson, R.L. Scott, William Lindsey, Mabel Kral, D.B.WArd, S.S. Ward, Cecil Slaughter, Marc Minno, Brenda Herring, Don Herring, John Small, Robert Lazor, Gary Knight, P. Genelle, G. Fleming, R.J. Eaton, Richard Mitchell, S.W. Leonard, W.T. Penfound, Josephine Skehan, Karl Nestor, Richard Triplett, F. A. Gilbert, Edward Steele, W.F. Westerfeld, R.E. Torrey, E. Bourdo, R.H. Wnek, S.J. Lombardo, K.E. Blum, Norlan Henderson, Delzie Demaree, A.F. Clewell, M. Nee, D.A. Rayner, James Kessler, Roomie Wilson, Sidney McDaniel, Elmo Law, W.F. Westerfeld, Donald Stone, John Thieret, Willis Eggler, Clarke Hudson, E. Bourdo, Charles Bryson, C.R. Ball, Victoria Sullivan, D. Kennemore, George Jones, Robert Thorne, Joscelyn Hill, Cliff Duncun, Richard Clinebell, Lisa Keppner, K. MacClendon, Elmar Prichard, Francis Thorne, J. Kevin England, Jamie England. States and counties: Florida (Leon, Gadsden, Jefferson, Polk, Charlotte, Duval, Wakulla, Gulf, Calhoun, Hardee, Santa Rosa, Marion, Manatee, Citrus, Okaloosa, Jackson, Levy, Seminole, Clay, Hernando, Nassau, Lee, Walton, Suwannee, Sumter, Taylor, holmes, Lake, Washington) Louisiana (St. Tammany, Oachita, Union, Tangipahoa, Evangeline) Mississippi (Jackson, Scott, CLay, George, Kemper), West Virginia (Barbour, Cabell, Preston) Alabama (Wilcox) Virginia (Nottoway, Giles, Patrick, Prince George) Pennsylvania (Huntington) Massachusetts (Hampshire) Missouri (Ripley, Shannon, Douglas, Sullivan, Hickory, McDonald, Henry,Jasper, Carter) Vermont (Windsor) Maryland (Baltimore) South Carolina (Oconee, York, Edgefield, Richland) Tennesssee (Coffee) Arkansas (Garland, Sharp, Clark, Prairie, Faulkner, Pulaski,Marion, Craighead, Hot Spring) Georgia (Thomas, Gwinnett) Colorada (Larimer) Wisconsin (Richalnd) Texas (Harris, Taylor, Freestone) Tennessee (Hickman) North Carolina (Buncombe, Polk, Granville, Caldwell, Burke) Alabama (Geneva, Montgomery, Sumter, Pickens), Kansas (Wooden) Michigan (Baraga) Indiana (Kosciusko) Georgia (Thomas, Camden, Ben Hill, Tift, Morgan) Ohio (Erie)
  4. Carr, S.C., K.M. Robertson, and R.K. Peet. 2010. A vegetation classification of fire-dependent pinelands of Florida. Castanea 75:153-189.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Kirkman, L.K., K.L. Coffey, R.J. Mitchell, and E.B. Moser. Ground Cover Recovery Patterns and Life-History Traits: Implications for Restoration Obstacles and Opportunities in a Species-Rich Savanna. (2004). Journal of Ecology 92(3):409-421.
  6. Nelson, G. PanFlora: Plant data for the eastern United States with emphasis on the Southeastern Coastal Plains, Florida, and the Florida Panhandle. Accessed: 29 MAY 2018
  7. Kirkman, L. Katherine. Unpublished database of seed dispersal mode of plants found in Coastal Plain longleaf pine-grasslands of the Jones Ecological Research Center, Georgia.
  8. Robertson, K.M. Unpublished data collected from Pebble Hill Fire Plots, Pebble Hill Plantation, Thomasville, Georgia.
  9. Platt, W.J., R. Carter, G. Nelson, W. Baker, S. Hermann, J. Kane, L. Anderson, M. Smith, K. Robertson. 2021. Unpublished species list of Wade Tract old-growth longleaf pine savanna, Thomasville, Georgia.
  10. Observation by Patrick R. Leary, Ralph Simmons State Forest, Nassau Co. Fl., June 14, 2018, posted to Florida Flora and Ecosystematics Facebook Group June 15, 2018.
  11. [1]