Rivina humilis

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Rivina humilis
Rivi humi.jpg
Photo by Shirley Denton (Copyrighted, use by photographer’s permission only), Nature Photography by Shirley Denton
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta - Flowering plants
Class: Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Order: Caryophyllales
Family: Phytolaccaceae
Genus: Rivina
Species: R. humilis
Binomial name
Rivina humilis
Rivi humi dist.jpg
Natural range of Rivina humilis from USDA NRCS Plants Database.

Common names: Bloodberry rougeplant, Rougeplant, Pigeonberry, Baby-pepper

Taxonomic notes

Synonyms: none

Varieties: none


A description of Rivina humilis is provided in The Flora of North America.


It is found in southern North America from Florida to Arizona, north to Oklahoma and Arkansas, south through central America and the Caribbean to tropical South America.[1]



R. humilis has been found in sandy coastal hammocks, cabbage palm-mixed hardwoods, semi-deciduous forests, lake shores, mesic hammocks with limestone outcrops, shaded dunes, oak hammocks, and wetland shores.[2][3] It has also been found in disturbed areas including along open roadsides, between soybean fields, cleared tropical evergreen forests, and burned restoration areas.[3]

Associated species: Bursera simarouba, Pithecellobium unguis-cati, Trichostigma octandrum, Atriplex pentandra, Achyranthes aspera, Morinda royoc, M. citrifolia, Colubrina arborescens, Cenchrus sp., Oplonia microphyllus, Cassytha filiformis, Commicarpus sulcatus, Lantana involucrata, Juniperus virginiana, Sabal palmetto, Acer negundo, Fraxinus spp, and Cassytha filiformis.[3]


Blooms March through October.[1] Rivina humilis was observed at the Archbold Biological Station with sweat bees from the Halictidae family such as Lasioglossum pectoralis.[4]

Conservation, cultivation, and restoration

Cultural use

Used in the southwest as red dye.[5] This species is poisonous.[6]

Photo Gallery

References and notes

  1. 1.0 1.1 [[1]]Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center. Accessed: March 10, 2016
  2. Florida State University Herbarium Database. URL: http://herbarium.bio.fsu.edu. Last accessed: May 2021. Collectors: R. Kral and Cecil Slaughter. States and counties: Florida: Orange and St. Lucie.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 University of Florida Herbarium Database. URL: https://www.floridamuseum.ufl.edu/herbarium. Last accessed: May 2021. Collectors: J. Richard Abbott, H. Adams, Paul Corogin, Caroline Easley, Jean Farabee, Doug Goldman, D. Grover, Jeffery Hubbard, Lucas C. Majure, Jill M. Scanlon, and M. Wingate. Countries and provinces: Bolivia: Chiquitos and Ñuflo de Chavez. Dominican Republic: La Altagracia. States and counties: Florida: Alachua, Brevard, Duval, Hernando, Marion.
  4. Deyrup, M.A. and N.D. 2015. Database of observations of Hymenoptera visitations to flowers of plants on Archbold Biological Station, Florida, USA.
  5. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named plantdelight
  6. [[2]] Accessed: March 10, 2016