Quercus incana

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Quercus incana
Quercus incana PH 2015-10.JPG
Photo taken by Kevin Robertson
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Tracheophyta- Vascular plants
Class: Magnoliopsida - Dicotyledons
Order: Fagales
Family: Fagaceae
Genus: Quercus
Species: Q. incana
Binomial name
Quercus incana
W. Bartram
Quer inca dist.jpg
Natural range of Quercus incana from USDA NRCS Plants Database.

Common name: Bluejack oak

Taxonomic notes

Synonyms: Quercus cinerea Michaux; Q. humilis Wlater


A description of Quercus incana is provided in The Flora of North America.




Q. incana has been found in turkey oak-longleaf pine stands, sand dunes, sand pine scrub, longleaf pine-wiregrass ridges, slashpine flatwoods, dry pine barrens, upland woods, and evergreen oak scrub.[1] It is also found in disturbed areas including along roadsides, clear cut longleaf pine forests, and burned pinewoods.[1]

Associated species: Q. myrtifolia, Quercus marilandica, Opuntia humifusa, Stillingia sylvatica, Tephrosia virginiana, and Quercus-Ilex.[1][2][3][4]

Quercus incana is restricted to native groundcover with a statistical affinity in upland pinelands of South Georgia.[5]

Q. incana has shown regrowth in reestablished longleaf pine woodlands that were disturbed by agriculture in South Carolina, making it a post-agricultural woodland indicator species.[6] It also increased its density in response to disturbance by roller chopping in west Florida sandhills.[7]

This species became absent in response to military training in west Georgia longleaf pine forests.[8] Q. incana reduced its frequency and density in response to roller chopping in northwest Florida sandhills.[9] It also became absent and decreased its occurrence in response to agriculture in north Florida pinelands.[5] It has shown resistance to regrowth in reestablished habitats that were disturbed by these activities.

It does not respond to soil disturbance by clearcutting and chopping in north Florida flatwoods forests.[10]

Quercus incana is frequent and abundant in the Panhandle Xeric Sandhills, North Florida Subxeric Sandhills, and Clayhill Longleaf Woodlands community types as described in Carr et al. (2010).[11]


Q. incana has been observed flowering in March and April.[12]

Seed dispersal

This species is thought to be dispersed by gravity.[13]

Fire ecology

Populations of Quercus incana have been known to persist through repeated annual burning.[14]

Herbivory and toxicology

Q. incana has been observed to host treehoppers such as Ophiderma pubescens (family Membracidae).[15]

Conservation, cultivation, and restoration

Cultural use

Photo Gallery

References and notes

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Florida State University Herbarium Database. URL: http://herbarium.bio.fsu.edu. Last accessed: June 2021. Collectors: A. H. Curtiss, Robert Doren, Angus Gholson, Robert K. Godfrey, Robert L. Lazor, and Dwayne Wise. States and counties: Florida: Calhoun, Duval, Franklin, Gilchrist, Highlands, Levy.
  2. Louisiana State University, Shirley C. Tucker Herbarium accessed using Southeastern Regional Network of Expertise and Collections (SERNEC) data portal. URL: http://sernecportal.org/portal/collections/index.php Last accessed: June 2021. Collectors: Charles M. Allen. States and Counties: Louisiana: Saint Helena
  3. Lundell Herbarium at the University of Texas at Austin accessed using Southeastern Regional Network of Expertise and Collections (SERNEC) data portal. URL: http://sernecportal.org/portal/collections/index.php Last accessed: June 2021. Collectors: Jimmy R. Massey. States and Counties: Mississippi: Newton.
  4. Mississippi Museum of Natural Science Herbarium accessed using Southeastern Regional Network of Expertise and Collections (SERNEC) data portal. URL: http://sernecportal.org/portal/collections/index.php Last accessed: June 2021. Collectors: Lucas C. Majure. States and Counties: Texas: Robertson.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Ostertag, T.E., and K.M. Robertson. 2007. A comparison of native versus old-field vegetation in upland pinelands managed with frequent fire, South Georgia, USA. Pages 109–120 in R.E. Masters and K.E.M. Galley (eds.). Proceedings of the 23rd Tall Timbers Fire Ecology Conference: Fire in Grassland and Shrubland Ecosystems.
  6. Brudvig, L.A., J.L. Orrock, E.I. Damschen, C.D. Collins, P.G. Hahn, W.B. Mattingly, J.W. Veldman, and J.L. Walker. (2014). Land-Use History and Contemporary Management Inform an Ecological Reference Model for Longleaf Pine Woodland Understory Plant Communities. PLoS ONE 9(1): e86604.
  7. Burns, R.M. and R.D. McReynolds. (1972). Scheduling and Intensity of Site Preparation for Pine in West Florida Sandhills. Journal of Forestry 70(12):737-740.
  8. Dale, V.H., S.C. Beyeler, and B. Jackson. (2002). Understory vegetation indicators of anthropogenic disturbance in longleaf pine forests at Fort Benning, Georgia, USA. Ecological Indicators 1(3):155-170.
  9. Hebb, E.A. (1971). Site Preparation Decreases Game Food Plants in Florida Sandhills. The Journal of Wildlife Management 35(1):155-162.
  10. Moore, W.H., B.F. Swindel, and W.S. Terry. (1982). Vegetative Response to Clearcutting and Chopping in a North Florida Flatwoods Forest. Journal of Range Management 35(2):214-218.
  11. Carr, S.C., K.M. Robertson, and R.K. Peet. 2010. A vegetation classification of fire-dependent pinelands of Florida. Castanea 75:153-189.
  12. Nelson, G. PanFlora: Plant data for the eastern United States with emphasis on the Southeastern Coastal Plains, Florida, and the Florida Panhandle. www.gilnelson.com/PanFlora/ Accessed: 13 DEC 2016
  13. Kirkman, L. Katherine. Unpublished database of seed dispersal mode of plants found in Coastal Plain longleaf pine-grasslands of the Jones Ecological Research Center, Georgia.
  14. Platt, W.J., R. Carter, G. Nelson, W. Baker, S. Hermann, J. Kane, L. Anderson, M. Smith, K. Robertson. 2021. Unpublished species list of Wade Tract old-growth longleaf pine savanna, Thomasville, Georgia.
  15. Discoverlife.org [1]