Quercus chapmanii

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Quercus chapmanii
Quer chap.jpg
Photo by Shirley Denton (Copyrighted, use by photographer’s permission only), Nature Photography by Shirley Denton
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta - Flowering plants
Class: Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Order: Fagales
Family: Fagaceae
Genus: Quercus
Species: Q. chapmanii
Binomial name
Quercus chapmanii
Sarg.
Quer chap dist.jpg
Natural range of Quercus chapmanii from USDA NRCS Plants Database.

Common names: Chapman's oak, Chapman oak

Taxonomic notes

Quercus is formed from two Celtic words: quer (beautiful) cuez (tree). Chapmanii is named after A.W. Chapman (1809-1899) a physician and botanist.[1]

Description

A description of Quercus chapmanii is provided in The Flora of North America. Q. chapmanii is a member of the white oak group which can be classified as having alternative, rounded leaves and a smooth inner acorn shell.[2]

Distribution

Q. chapmanii is found in xeric scrubs and scrubby flatwoods in Florida, coastal Alabama, Georgia, and the southern portion of South Carolina.[1]

Ecology

Habitat

In the Coastal Plain in Florida, Q. chapmanii has occurred in a scrub thicket between dunes and a sound; sand pine scrubs; island sand ridges; sand barrens; high pine scrubs; ravines along creeks; scrub oak-wiregrass sand ridges; evergreen oak scrubs; live oak hammocks; sand pine/mixed oak scrub; coastal scrubs; dune scrubs; pine flatwoods; pine-scrub oak-palmetto communities; and oak-hickory-magnolia coastal hammocks. It has been observed in disturbed habitats such as along roadsides, a sandhill scrub next to powerlines, and a stand of cleared longleaf pine that is now a thick stand of mixed oaks. Soil types include white sand, loamy sand and sandy loam. Associated species include Quercus myrtifolia, Q. incana, Q. laevis, Q. geminata, Q. hemisphaerica, Q. laurifolia, Q. nigra, Q. minima, Ilex glabra, Serenoa repens, Sabal minor, Pinus clausa, Carya, and Vitis rotundifolia.[3]

This species does not tolerate long term flooding by salt or brackish water, however, it has a high drought tolerance.[4]

Phenology

Q. chapmanii flowers March through July and fruits March through December.[3]

Seed dispersal

Acorns are dispersed by wind and gravity.[4]

Pollination

The following Hymenoptera families and species were observed visiting flowers of Quercus chapmanii at Archbold Biological Station: [5]

Andrenidae: Andrena dimorpha

Apidae: Apis mellifera

Colletidae: Colletes brimleyi

Halictidae: Agapostemon splendens, Augochlora pura, Augochlorella aurata, Augochloropsis metallica, Lasioglossum miniatulus

Use by animals

Acorns provide food to birds and large mammals.[1] This species is also a larval host for Horace's duskywing, Juvenal's duskywing, and red-banded hairstreak butterflies.[4]

Conservation and management

Cultivation and restoration

Quercus species contain tannin, which is an active chemical in most medicine derived from oaks, that prevents viruses, infections and tumors.[1]

Photo Gallery

References and notes

Florida State University Robert K. Godfrey Herbarium database. URL: http://herbarium.bio.fsu.edu. Last accessed: November 2015. Collectors: Loran C. Anderson, Wilson Baker, Tom Barnes, L.J. Brass, Michael Brooks, James R. Burkhaulter, Andre F. Clewell, W.M. Cross, William B. Fox, Robert K. Godfrey, Bruce Hansen, JoAnn Hanson, R.D. Houk, H. Kurz, O. Lakela, Robert J. Lemaire, S.W. Leonard, Sidney McDaniel, Marc Minno, J.B. Nelson, Ann M. Redmond, W.D. Reese, Grady W. Reinert , H.F.L Rock, Cecil R. Slaughter. States and Counties: Florida: Bay, Citrus, Clay, Collier, Duval, Escambia, Flagler, Franklin, Gilchrist, Gulf, Hernando, Highlands, Indian River, Lake, Levy, Marion, Martin, Okaloosa, Orange, Osceola, Palm Beach, Polk, Putnam, St. Johns, Taylor, Volusia, Wakulla, Walton. Compiled by Tall Timbers Research Station and Land Conservancy.
  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 [[1]] University of Florida Extension. Accessed: March 7, 2016
  2. [[2]] University of Florida Extension. Accessed: March 7, 2016
  3. 3.0 3.1 Florida State University Robert K. Godfrey Herbarium database. URL: http://herbarium.bio.fsu.edu. Last accessed: November 2015. Collectors: Loran C. Anderson, Wilson Baker, Tom Barnes, L.J. Brass, Michael Brooks, James R. Burkhaulter, Andre F. Clewell, W.M. Cross, William B. Fox, Robert K. Godfrey, Bruce Hansen, JoAnn Hanson, R.D. Houk, H. Kurz, O. Lakela, Robert J. Lemaire, S.W. Leonard, Sidney McDaniel, Marc Minno, J.B. Nelson, Ann M. Redmond, W.D. Reese, Grady W. Reinert , H.F.L Rock, Cecil R. Slaughter. States and Counties: Florida: Bay, Citrus, Clay, Collier, Duval, Escambia, Flagler, Franklin, Gilchrist, Gulf, Hernando, Highlands, Indian River, Lake, Levy, Marion, Martin, Okaloosa, Orange, Osceola, Palm Beach, Polk, Putnam, St. Johns, Taylor, Volusia, Wakulla, Walton. Compiled by Tall Timbers Research Station and Land Conservancy
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 [[3]]Regional Conservation. Accessed: March 7, 2016
  5. Deyrup, M.A. and N.D. 2015. Database of observations of Hymenoptera visitations to flowers of plants on Archbold Biological Station, Florida, USA.