Oenothera biennis

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Common name: common evening primrose [1]

Oenothera biennis
Oenothera biennis IWF.jpg
Photo by John Hilty at IllinoisWildflowers.info
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta - Flowering plants
Class: Magnoliopsida - Dicots
Order: Myrtales
Family: Onagraceae
Genus: Oenothera
Species: O. biennis
Binomial name
Oenothera biennis
L.
OENO BIEN DIST.JPG
Natural range of Oenothera biennis from USDA NRCS Plants Database.

Taxonomic Notes

Synonyms: O. biennis var. pycnocarpa (Atkinson & Bartlett) Wiegand; O. biennis ssp. caeciarum Munz; O. biennis ssp. centralis Munz

Varieties: none

Description

O. biennis is a biennial forb/herb of the Onagraceae family native to North America and Canada. [1]

Distribution

O. biennis is found in all of the United States and Canada excluding Idaho, Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, and Arizona. [1]

Ecology

Habitat

O. biennis proliferates in fields, pastures, roadsides, and disturbed areas. [2] Specimens have been collected from dry loamy sand, moist loamy sand, disturbed roadside, clearing on a trail, edge of old field, road embankment, border of wet pinewoods, open bank of marshes, old fields, along road in hardwood forest, and edge of parking area. [3]

Phenology

O. biennis has been observed flowering in February and August through October. [4]

Fire ecology

O. biennis is not fire resistant and has low fire tolerance. [1]

Conservation and Management

O. biennis is listed as a weedy or invasive plant by the University Press of Kentucky, the Nebraska Department of Agriculture Bureau of Plant Industry, and the Southern Weed Science Society. [1]

Cultivation and restoration

Photo Gallery

References and notes

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 USDA Plant Database https://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=OEBI
  2. Weakley, A. S. (2015). Flora of the Southern and Mid-Atlantic States. Chapel Hill, NC, University of North Carolina Herbarium.
  3. URL: http://herbarium.bio.fsu.edu. Last accessed: June 2018. Collectors: Loran C. Anderson, K. Craddock Burks, Gary Knight, R.K. Godfrey, Wilson Baker, Lisa Keppner, Ed Keppner, R.Komarek, Robert Lazor, Andre Clewell, Miguel Altieri, J.M. Kane. States and counties: Florida (Franklin, Nassau, Leon, Jefferson, Jackson, Madison, Wakulla, Liberty, Bay, Lee, Washington, Gulf.) Georgia (Grady, Thomas, Decatur)
  4. Nelson, G. PanFlora: Plant data for the eastern United States with emphasis on the Southeastern Coastal Plains, Florida, and the Florida Panhandle. www.gilnelson.com/PanFlora/ Accessed: 24 MAY 2018