|Photo by John R. Gwaltney, Southeastern Flora.com|
|Division:||Tracheophyta - Vascular plants|
|Class:||Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons|
| Nuttallanthus floridanus|
(Chapm.) D.A. Sutton
|Natural range of Nuttallanthus floridanus from USDA NRCS Plants Database.|
Common names: Apalachicola toadflax; Texas toadflax
Synonym: Linaria floridana Chapm.
The genus Nuttallanthus was separated from Linaria in 1988 by Sutton due to the floral and seed characteristics. 
This species is an annual herb that produces bluish, bilabiate, and spurred flowers that attract a variety of insects. 
N. floridanus is a narrowly distributed species occurring in the Atlantic and Gulf coastal plain in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, and Mississppi. 
Habitats include sparsely vegetated white sands along lakes, scrubs, sand dunes, and dry sandhills. It has been observed growing in disturbed areas such as roadsides. Associated species include Krigia virginica and Crocanthemum. 
Flowers and fruits in March.
It is an autogamous species and produces both cleistogamous and chasmogamous flowers. The cleistogamous flowers are produced early and late in the life cycle and the chasmogamous flowers are self-pollinated before anthesis and attract insects after anthesis. 
The seeds are small and lack obvious dispersal mechanisms. 
Seed bank and germination
Carrington (1997) found that germination depends on seeds accumulated in a persistent seed bank to maintain populations between disturbances.
Pollen is required for fruit and seed development. It is completely cross-incompatible with other Nuttallanthus species due to the amount of genetic divergence between species and isolation. 
The following Hymenoptera families and species were observed visiting flowers of Linaria floridana at Archbold Biological Station:
Halictidae: Lasioglossum nymphalis, Lasioglossum pectoralis, Lasioglossum puteulanum
Megachilidae: Anthidiellum notatum rufomaculatum, Megachile brevis pseudobrevis, Megachile georgica, Osmia sandhouse
Sphecidae: Tachysphex similis
Conservation and management
Cultivation and restoration
References and notes
- Phillip, T. C. and W. J. Elisens (2006). "Genetic Variation and Reproductive System among North American Species of Nuttallanthus (Plantaginaceae)." American Journal of Botany 93(4): 582-591.
- []Accessed: January 20, 2016
- Florida State University Robert K. Godfrey Herbarium database. URL: http://herbarium.bio.fsu.edu. Last accessed: February 2016. Collectors: Loran C. Anderson, Robert K. Godfrey, R. Kral, and Helen Roth. States and Counties: Florida: Franklin, Gadsden, Leon, Marion, and Wakulla.
- Carrington, M. E. (1997). "Soil Seed Bank Structure and Composition in Florida Sand Pine Scrub." American Midland Naturalist 137(1): 39-47.
- Deyrup, M.A. 2015. Database of observations of Hymenoptera visitations to flowering plants on Archbold Biological Station, Florida, USA.