|Photo by the Illinois Wildflowers Database|
|Division:||Magnoliophyta - Flowering plants|
|Class:||Liliopsida - Moncots|
|Natural range of Juncus effusus from USDA NRCS Plants Database.|
Synonyms: Juncus griscomii Fernald.
Subspecies: Juncus effusus Linnaeus ssp. effusus; Juncus effusus Linnaeus ssp. solutus (Fernald & Wiegand).
J. effusus is a perennial graminoid of the Juncaceae family native to North America and introduced in Hawaii.
J. effusus is found in the eastern half of the United States from Colorado and New Mexico to Maine, as well as Hawaii.
A native of Europe, Juncus effusus ssp. effusus is widespread and overlooked throughout its range.
The range of Juncus effusus ssp. solutus extends north into Newfoundland and Minnesota, then south in Florida and Mexico.
Juncus effusus is found in moist soil, marshes, margins of streams, ponds, lakes, swamps, and low meadows. Specimens have been collected from a wet ditch, pine forest in swamp bed, wet flatwoods, flooded pastures, seepage bog, moist sandy loam, shallow water, floodplain forest, and the edge of woods.
J. effusus was found to increase in frequency in response to soil disturbance by clearcutting and chopping in north Florida flatwoods forests. It has shown regrowth in reestablished native flatwood habitat that was disturbed by these practices.
J. effusus flowers June through September.
Herbivory and toxicology
J. effusus has been observed to host planthoppers from the Delphacidae family such as Conomelus anceps and Nothodelphax occlusa. J. effusus is readily eaten by marsh rabbits. It is also among the 14 major fall-early winter south Florida deer foods.
Conservation, cultivation, and restoration
References and notes
- USDA Plant Database https://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=JUEFS
- Weakley, A. S. (2015). Flora of the Southern and Mid-Atlantic States. Chapel Hill, NC, University of North Carolina Herbarium.
- Weakley, A.S. 2015. Flora of the southern and mid-atlantic states. Working Draft of 21 May 2015. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
- URL: http://herbarium.bio.fsu.edu. Last accessed: June 2018. Collectors: Lisa keppner, Ed Keppner, R.F. Doren, R. Komarek, R.S. Blaisdell, R.K. Godfrey, K.M. Meyer, A. Townesmith, Loran C. Anderson, Cecil Slaughter, Dianne Hall, Kim Ponzio, K. MacClendon, V. Craig, M. Boothe, Alush Shilom Ton, D.E. Breedlove, A. Mast, Chris Buddenhagen, Annie Schmidt, John Kunzer, Peter Zika. States and counties: Florida ( Bay, Marion, Leon, Columbia, Taylor, Brevard, Calhoun, Santa Rosa, Wakulla, Gadsden, Liberty, Holmes, De Soto, washington, Gulf) Oregon (Morrow) Georgia (Grady)
- Moore, W.H., B.F. Swindel, and W.S. Terry. (1982). Vegetative Response to Clearcutting and Chopping in a North Florida Flatwoods Forest. Journal of Range Management 35(2):214-218.
- Nelson, G. PanFlora: Plant data for the eastern United States with emphasis on the Southeastern Coastal Plains, Florida, and the Florida Panhandle. www.gilnelson.com/PanFlora/ Accessed: 22 MAY 2018
- Discoverlife.org 
- Blair, W. F. (1936). "The Florida marsh rabbit." Journal of Mammalogy 17(3): 197-207.
- Harlow, R. F. (1961). "Fall and winter foods of Florida white-tailed deer." The Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 24(1): 19-38.