Hypericum tetrapetalum

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Hypericum tetrapetalum
FL 7843.jpg
Photo taken by Gil Nelson
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta - Flowering plants
Class: Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Order: Theales
Family: Clusiaceae ⁄ Guttiferae
Genus: Hypericum
Species: H. tetrapetalum
Binomial name
Hypericum tetrapetalum
(L.) Crantz
HYPE TETR dist.jpg
Natural range of Hypericum tetrapetalum from USDA NRCS Plants Database.

Common name: Fourpetal St. John's-wort

Taxonomic notes

Synonym: Ascyrum tetrapetalum (Lamarck) Vail

Description

H. tetrapetalum is a slender plant, usually with few branchings. [1] As its name implies, this species has a tetramerous calyx and corolla. [1]

“Usually glabrous herbs or shrubs. Leaves usually punctate, simple, opposite, entire, usually sessile or subsessile, exstipulate. Inflorescence basically cymose; flowers perfect, regular, bracteates, subsessile or short-pedicellate, sepals 2, 4, or 5, persistent; petals 4 or 5, usually marcescent, yellow or pink; stamens 5-numerous, separate or connate basally forming 3-5 clusters or fascicles, filaments usually persistent; carpels 2-5, stigmas and styles separate or fused, ovary superior, 1-locular or partly or wholly 2-5 locular, placentation axile or parietal. Capsules basically ovoid, longitudinally dehiscent, styles usually persistent; seeds numerous, lustrous, areolate, cylindric or oblong. In general our species form a polymorphic complex with many intergrading taxa.” [2]

Distribution

Ecology

Habitat

H. tetrapetalum occurs in wet sandy soils, like those of wetland woodlands, mesic flatwoods, or the margins of Karst ponds. [1] It can also occur in disturbed areas like roadsides. [1] Associated species include Pinus palutris, Hypericum microsepalum, and Serenoa repens. [1] Also include gallberry. [1]

Phenology

This species is recorded in the FSU Herbarium specimens as flowering in August, but in peninsular Florida it can bloom throughout the year.[3] In north Florida H. tetrapetalum has been observed flowering in July and December.[4]

Pollination

The following Hymenoptera families and species were observed visiting flowers of Hypericum tetrapetalum at Archbold Biological Station: [5]

Halictidae: Augochlorella aurata, Augochloropsis metallica, Lasioglossum coreopsis, L. miniatulus

Megachilidae: Megachile brevis pseudobrevis

Use by animals

Deyrup observed these bees on, but not necessarily pollinating, H. tetrapetalum: Augochlorella aurata, Dialictzcs coreopsis, D. lniniatulusi.[6]

Conservation and management

Cultivation and restoration

Photo Gallery

References and notes

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Florida State University Robert K. Godfrey Herbarium database. URL: http://herbarium.bio.fsu.edu. Last accessed: June 2014. Collectors: R. A. Norris, Robert K. Godfrey, Steve L. Orzell, and Cecil R Slaughter. States and Counties: Florida: Alachua, Leon, Osceola, and Wakulla. Georgia: Camden and Clinch.
  2. Radford, Albert E., Harry E. Ahles, and C. Ritchie Bell. Manual of the Vascular Flora of the Carolinas. 1964, 1968. The University of North Carolina Press. 709. Print.
  3. Jason Sharp post to Florida Botany with image of flowering plant, 1 FEB 2016
  4. Nelson, G. PanFlora: Plant data for the eastern United States with emphasis on the Southeastern Coastal Plains, Florida, and the Florida Panhandle. www.gilnelson.com/PanFlora/ Accessed: 12 DEC 2016
  5. Deyrup, M.A. and N.D. 2015. Database of observations of Hymenoptera visitations to flowers of plants on Archbold Biological Station, Florida, USA.
  6. Deyrup, M. J. E., and Beth Norden (2002). "The diversity and floral hosts of bees at the Archbold Biological Station, Florida (Hymenoptera: Apoidea)." Insecta mundi 16(1-3).