Hypericum hypericoides

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Hypericum hypericoides
Hypericum hypericoides.jpg
Photo taken by Kevin Robertson
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta - Flowering plants
Class: Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Order: Theales
Family: Clusiaceae ⁄ Guttiferae
Genus: Hypericum
Species: H. hypericoides
Binomial name
Hypericum hypericoides
(L.) Crantz
HYPE HYPE dist.jpg
Natural range of Hypericum hypericoides from USDA NRCS Plants Database.

Common name: St. Andrew's cross

Taxonomic notes

Synonyms: Ascyrum hypericoides Linnaeus var. hypericoides; Ascyrum hypericoides Linnaeus var. oblongifolium (Spach) Fernald; H. hypericoides ssp. hypericoides; Ascyrum hypericoides Linnaeus; Ascyrum linifolium Spach

Description

Hypericum hypericoides is a perennial shrub species.

“Usually glabrous herbs or shrubs. Leaves usually punctate, simple, opposite, entire, usually sessile or subsessile, exstipulate. Inflorescence basically cymose; flowers perfect, regular, bracteates, subsessile or short-pedicellate, sepals 2, 4, or 5, persistent; petals 4 or 5, usually marcescent, yellow or pink; stamens 5-numerous, separate or connate basally forming 3-5 clusters or fascicles, filaments usually persistent; carpels 2-5, stigmas and styles separate or fused, ovary superior, 1-locular or partly or wholly 2-5 locular, placentation axile or parietal. Capsules basically ovoid, longitudinally dehiscent, styles usually persistent; seeds numerous, lustrous, areolate, cylindric or oblong. In general our species form a polymorphic complex with many intergrading taxa.” [1]

"Shrub 3-10 dm tall with erect or ascending, wing-angled. Leaves elliptic, linear, or oblanceolate, 8-26 mm long, 1-7 mm wide, acute or obtuse, base cuneate, notched. Flowers solitary, axillary, or ins mall cymules; bracts paired, at base of sepals; pedicels ascending, 1-5 mm long. Outer sepals 2, ovate, or widely elliptic, 5-12 mm long, 3.5-7 mm wide, acute, base frequently subcordate, inner sepals usually obsolete; petal 4, 6-10 mm long; styles 2, partly fuse, 0.5-1 mm long, ovary 1-locular. Capsules ovoid, 4-9 mm long, 2.5-4 mm long, 2.5-4 mm broad; seeds black, ca.1 mm long."[1]

Distribution

Ecology

Habitat

H. hypericoides occurs in wet or moist loamy soils and semi-shady to open light conditions.[2] It can be found in annually burned longleaf pineland, wetland depressions, limestone glades, and by ponds. However, it also appears in disturbed areas including roadsides, open fields, and pine plantations.[2] It has been associated with areas that are heavily logged, herbicided for woody plants, and burned several times, as compared to unlogged areas that are selectively herbicided for hardwoods and infrequently burned.[3] Associated species include Pinus palutris and Pinus elliottii.[2]

Phenology

H. hypericoides has been observed flowering in March, April, June, July, and September, while fruiting has been observed in September.[2][4]

Seed dispersal

This species is thought to be dispersed by gravity. [5]

Fire ecology

This species has been found in habitat that is burned annually, indicating some level of fire tolerance. [6]

Conservation and management

Cultivation and restoration

Photo Gallery

References and notes

Radford, Albert E., Harry E. Ahles, and C. Ritchie Bell. Manual of the Vascular Flora of the Carolinas. 1964, 1968. The University of North Carolina Press. 709-713. Print.
  1. 1.0 1.1 Radford, Albert E., Harry E. Ahles, and C. Ritchie Bell. Manual of the Vascular Flora of the Carolinas. 1964, 1968. The University of North Carolina Press. 709-713. Print.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Florida State University Robert K. Godfrey Herbarium database. URL: http://herbarium.bio.fsu.edu. Last accessed: June 2014. Collectors: Ann F. Johnson, Wilson Baker, Loran C. Anderson, Leon Neel, R. Komarek, R.A. Norris, R.F. Doren, Robert K. Godfrey, Andre F. Clewell, Kevin Oakes, Chris Cooksey, and Sidney McDaniel. States and Counties: Florida: Franklin, Jackson, Jefferson, Lee, Leon, and Wakulla. Georgia: Baker and Thomas. Texas: Orange. Other Countries: Dominican Republic.
  3. Cipollini, M. L., J. Culberson, et al. (2012). "Herbaceous plants and grasses in a mountain longleaf pine forest undergoing restoration: a survey and comparative study." Southeastern Naturalist 11: 637-668.
  4. Nelson, G. PanFlora: Plant data for the eastern United States with emphasis on the Southeastern Coastal Plains, Florida, and the Florida Panhandle. www.gilnelson.com/PanFlora/ Accessed: 12 DEC 2016
  5. Kirkman, L. Katherine. Unpublished database of seed dispersal mode of plants found in Coastal Plain longleaf pine-grasslands of the Jones Ecological Research Center, Georgia.
  6. Florida State University Robert K. Godfrey Herbarium database. URL: http://herbarium.bio.fsu.edu. Last accessed: June 2014. Collectors: Ann F. Johnson, Wilson Baker, Loran C. Anderson, Leon Neel, R. Komarek, R.A. Norris, R.F. Doren, Robert K. Godfrey, Andre F. Clewell, Kevin Oakes, Chris Cooksey, and Sidney McDaniel. States and Counties: Florida: Franklin, Jackson, Jefferson, Lee, Leon, and Wakulla. Georgia: Baker and Thomas. Texas: Orange. Other Countries: Dominican Republic.