Hypericum fasciculatum

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Hypericum fasciculatum
Hype fasc.jpg
Photo by Wayne Matchett, SpaceCoastWildflowers.com
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta - Flowering plants
Class: Magnoliopsida - Dicotyledons
Order: Theales
Family: Clusiaceae ⁄ Guttiferae
Genus: Hypericum
Species: H. fasciculatum
Binomial name
Hypericum fasciculatum
Lam.
Hype fasc dist.jpg
Natural range of Hypericum fasciculatum from USDA NRCS Plants Database.

Common name: Peelbark St. Johnswort

Taxonomic notes

Description

H. fasciculatum is a short lived perennial that has a single stem with reddish bark and forms thin adventitious roots. It can be distinguished from similar species, such as H. brachyphyllum by having flat leaves with no apparent fold.[1]

“Usually glabrous herbs or shrubs. Leaves usually punctate, simple, opposite, entire, usually sessile or subsessile, exstipulate. Inflorescence basically cymose; flowers perfect, regular, bracteates, subsessile or short-pedicellate, sepals 2, 4, or 5, persistent; petals 4 or 5, usually marcescent, yellow or pink; stamens 5-numerous, separate or connate basally forming 3-5 clusters or fascicles, filaments usually persistent; carpels 2-5, stigmas and styles separate or fused, ovary superior, 1-locular or partly or wholly 2-5 locular, placentation axile or parietal. Capsules basically ovoid, longitudinally dehiscent, styles usually persistent; seeds numerous, lustrous, areolate, cylindric or oblong. In general our species form a polymorphic complex with many intergrading taxa.” [2]

"Erect shrub, 8-15 dm tall, much-branched above, spongy-thickened below. Leaves linear-subulate or linear, with 2 longitudinal grooves below, largest usually 13-26 mm long, 0.7-2 mm wide, acute, base notched, sessile. Flowers terminal and axillary, solitary or in cymules. Sepals 5, similar to the leaves, 3-7 mm long, usually more than 4.5 mm long; petals 5, 6-9 mm long; styles united or 3, usually separate in fruit, ovary 3-locular. Capsules ovoid, ca. 4.5 mm long and 2mm broad; mature seeds not seen." [2]

Distribution

Ecology

Habitat

In the Coastal Plain in Florida and Georgia, H. fasciculatum can occur in Nyssa/Ilex communities, dry pond margins, ditches in pine flatwoods, titi bogs, rotted stumps, and dry bottoms of cypress ponds. [3] It responds to an annual, seasonal, or short-term change in water level by rapid colonization of favorable habitats and development of adventitious roots. [4] Associated species include Ilex myrtifolia, Eriocaulon lineare, Xyris, Rhynchospora corniculata, and Lycopodiella. It grows in moist loamy sand. [3]

Phenology

H. fasciculatum has been observed flowering in February, April to July, October, and November with peak inflorescence in May.[3][5] It has been observed fruiting October through December.[3]

Pollination

The following Hymenoptera families and species were observed visiting flowers of Hypericum fasciculatum at Archbold Biological Station: [6]

Apidae: Apis mellifera, Bombus impatiens

Colletidae: Colletes nudus

Megachilidae: Coelioxys sayi

Conservation and management

Cultivation and restoration

It contains volatile extracts primarily of composed of decyl acetate and gamma-muurolene, and has been used as cathartic agent in traditional Seminole Indian medicine. [7]

Photo Gallery

References and notes

  1. [[1]] Accessed: January 5, 2016
  2. 2.0 2.1 Radford, Albert E., Harry E. Ahles, and C. Ritchie Bell. Manual of the Vascular Flora of the Carolinas. 1964, 1968. The University of North Carolina Press. 709-713. Print.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Florida State University Robert K. Godfrey Herbarium database. URL: http://herbarium.bio.fsu.edu. Last accessed: October 2015. Collectors: Loran C. Anderson, Sara L. Crockett, R.K. Godfrey, Howard Horne, Virginia Jin, R. Komarek, K. MacClendon, T. MacClendon, Sidney McDaniel, R.A. Norris, Cecil R. Slaughter. States and Counties: Florida: Calhoun, Liberty, Osceola, Wakulla, Walton. Georgia: Clinch, Thomas. Compiled by Tall Timbers Research Station and Land Conservancy.
  4. Carr, D. W., D. A. Leeper, et al. (2006). "Comparison of six biologic indicators of hydrology and the landward extent of hydric soils in west-central Florida, USA cypress domes." Wetlands 26(4): 1012-1019.
  5. Nelson, G. PanFlora: Plant data for the eastern United States with emphasis on the Southeastern Coastal Plains, Florida, and the Florida Panhandle. www.gilnelson.com/PanFlora/ Accessed: 12 DEC 2016
  6. Deyrup, M.A. and N.D. 2015. Database of observations of Hymenoptera visitations to flowers of plants on Archbold Biological Station, Florida, USA.
  7. Crockett, S. L., B. Demirçi, et al. (2008). "Volatile Constituents of Hypericum L. Section Myriandra (Clusiaceae): Species of the H. fasciculatum Lam. Alliance." Journal of Essential Oil Research 20(3): 244-249.