Hypericum crux-andreae

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Hypericum crux-andreae
Hpyericum crux-andre MSmith 2015.jpg
Photo taken by Michelle Smith
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta - Flowering plants
Class: Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Order: Theales
Family: Clusiaceae ⁄ Guttiferae
Genus: Hypericum
Species: H. crux-andreae
Binomial name
Hypericum crux-andreae
(L.) Crantz
HYPE CRUX dist.jpg
Natural range of Hypericum crux-andreae from USDA NRCS Plants Database.

Common name: St. Peterswort

Taxonomic notes

Synonyms: Hypericum stans (Michaux ex Willdenow) W.P. Adams & Robson; Ascyrum stans Michaux ex Willdenow; Ascyrum cuneifolium Chapman

Description

Hypericum crux-andreae is a perennial shrub.

“Usually glabrous herbs or shrubs. Leaves usually punctate, simple, opposite, entire, usually sessile or subsessile, exstipulate. Inflorescence basically cymose; flowers perfect, regular, bracteates, subsessile or short-pedicellate, sepals 2, 4, or 5, persistent; petals 4 or 5, usually marcescent, yellow or pink; stamens 5-numerous, separate or connate basally forming 3-5 clusters or fascicles, filaments usually persistent; carpels 2-5, stigmas and styles separate or fused, ovary superior, 1-locular or partly or wholly 2-5 locular, placentation axile or parietal. Capsules basically ovoid, longitudinally dehiscent, styles usually persistent; seeds numerous, lustrous, areolate, cylindric or oblong. In general our species form a polymorphic complex with many intergrading taxa.[1]

"Erect shrub, 4-10 dm tall with shreddy old bark. Leaves coriaceous, elliptic, ovate, or obovate, 1-4 cm long, 5-20 mm wide, obtuse, slightly revolute, base widely cuneate, rounded, or slightly clasping, notched. Flowers solitary, axillary, or in cymules; bracts paired, near center of pedicel to near base of calyx; pedicels 4-10 mm long. Outer sepals cordate or ovate, 6-7 nerved, 10-18 mm long, 8-15 mm wide, acute or obtuse, inner sepals lanceolate, 6-15 mm long, 203 mm wide, acute to acuminate; petals 4, 10-18 mm long; styles usually 3(2-4), separate, 1-2.5 mm long, ovary 1-locular. Capsules ovoid, 7-10 mm long, 4-5 mm broad; seeds brown, 0.7-0.8 mm long."[1]

Distribution

Ecology

Habitat

It is found in longleaf pine-wiregrass flatwoods[2] and titi-cypress swamp communities in Florida.[3] It can also occur in some disturbed habitat like fallow fields.[4] Associated species include Andropogon, Pinus palutris, Aristida stricta, Cyrilla racemiflora, Salix humilis, Cephalanthus occidentalis, Saccharum sp., Dichanthelium scoparium, Smilax rotundifolia, Proserpinaca pectinata, and Hypericum brachyphyllum.[4]

Phenology

H. crux-andreae has been observed flowering in February, March, May through November, and fruiting has been observed in October.[4][5]

Seed dispersal

This species is thought to be dispersed by gravity. [6]

Seed bank and germination

Several short-lived perennial forbs also have a seed bank persistent for at least several years.[7]

Fire ecology

This species has been found in habitat that burns frequently.[4]

Conservation and management

Cultivation and restoration

Photo Gallery

References and notes

  1. 1.0 1.1 Radford, Albert E., Harry E. Ahles, and C. Ritchie Bell. Manual of the Vascular Flora of the Carolinas. 1964, 1968. The University of North Carolina Press. 709-711. Print.
  2. Brockway, D. G. and C. E. Lewis (1997). "Long-term effects of dormant-season prescribed fire on plant community diversity, structure and productivity in a longleaf pine wiregrass ecosystem." Forest Ecology and Management 96: 167-183.
  3. Drewa, P., W. Platt, et al. (2002). "Community Structure along Elevation Gradients in Headwater Regions of Longleaf Pine Savannas." Plant Ecology 160(1): 61-78.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Florida State University Robert K. Godfrey Herbarium database. URL: http://herbarium.bio.fsu.edu. Last accessed: June 2014. Collectors: Loran C. Anderson, Wilson Baker, Andre F. Clewell, M. Davis, R. F. Doren, Robert K. Godfrey, Ann F. Johnson, J. M. Kane, R. A. Norris, and Cecil R. Slaughter. States and Counties: Florida: Duval, Franklin, Jackson, Leon, Liberty, and Wakulla. Georgia: Baker, Grady, and Thomas. Texas: Hardin.
  5. Nelson, G. PanFlora: Plant data for the eastern United States with emphasis on the Southeastern Coastal Plains, Florida, and the Florida Panhandle. www.gilnelson.com/PanFlora/ Accessed: 12 DEC 2016
  6. Kirkman, L. Katherine. Unpublished database of seed dispersal mode of plants found in Coastal Plain longleaf pine-grasslands of the Jones Ecological Research Center, Georgia.
  7. Platt, W. J., S. M. Carr, et al. (2006). "Pine savanna overstorey influences on ground-cover biodiversity." Applied Vegetation Science 9: 37-50.