Garberia heterophylla

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Garberia heterophylla
Garb hete.jpg
Photo by Wayne Matchett,
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta - Flowering plants
Class: Magnoliopsida - Dicotyledons
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae ⁄ Compositae
Genus: Garberia
Species: G. heterophylla
Binomial name
Garberia heterophylla
(W. Bartram) Merr. & F. Harper
Garb hete dist.jpg
Natural range of Garberia heterophylla from USDA NRCS Plants Database.

Common name: Garberia

Taxonomic notes

Synonyms: Garberia fruticosa (Nuttall) A. Gray.[1]

Varieties: none.[1]


A description of Garberia heterophylla is provided in The Flora of North America.

G. heterophylla is a perennial species that reaches a height of 4 to 8 feet. The obovate leaves are alternately on the vertical stem.[2]


Garberia heterophylla is endemic to central peninsular Florida to the Lake Wales Ridge area.[3]



In the Coastal Plain in Florida, G. heterophylla occurs in sand pine-oak scrub ridges. [4] Associated species includes Quercus virginiana and Pinus clausa. [4]


Fruits November through December and flowers October through December. [4]

Seed dispersal

Seeds are dispersed by wind. [5]

Seed bank and germination

Smoke does not stimulate germination. [6]

Fire ecology

Carrington (1999) found G. heterophylla to be a strong resprouter post-fire, with a high percentage of individuals flowering. This study also found seedlings were established between 4 to 16 months post fire. This contradicts Weekley and Menges (2003), who found that survival was lower for burned individuals than for unburned individuals, suggesting G. heterophylla was a weak resprouter.


Various pollinator species were observed visiting flowers of Garberia heterophylla at the Archbold Biological Station. These include bees from the Apidae family (Bombus impatiens, Epeolus carolinus), plasterer bees from the Colletidae family (Colletes mandibularis), sweat bees from the Halictidae family (Agapostemon splendens, Augochlora pura, Augochlorella aurata, Augochloropsis metallica, Lasioglossum miniatulus, L. nymphalis, L. placidensis and Sphecodes heraclei), leafcutting bees from the Megachilidae family (Anthidiellum notatum rufomaculatum, Coelioxys sayi, Megachile albitarsis, M. mendica, M. pruina and M. xylocopoides), thread-waisted wasps from the Sphecidae family (Cerceris flavofasciata floridensis and Eremnophila aureonotata) and wasps from the Vespidae family (Monobia quadridens, Pachodynerus erynnis, Stenodynerus fundatiformis, Zethus slossonae and Zethus spinipes).[7] Additionally, G. heterophylla was observed being visited by Calycopis cecrops (red-banded hairstreak) in scrubby flatwoods along a short, relatively steep ecotone between Pinus clausa scrub and a Pinus densa savanna in northern Highlands County, Nov 28, 2016.[8]

Herbivory and toxicology

Conservation, cultivation, and restoration

Cultural use

Photo Gallery

References and notes

Weekley, Carl W., and Eric S. Menges. “Species and Vegetation Responses to Prescribed Fire in a Long-unburned, Endemic-rich Lake Wales Ridge Scrub”. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 130.4 (2003): 265–282.

  1. 1.0 1.1 Weakley, A.S. 2015. Flora of the southern and mid-atlantic states. Working Draft of 21 May 2015. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
  2. [[1]] Accessed: December 11, 2015
  3. Sorrie, B. A. and A. S. Weakley 2001. Coastal Plain valcular plant endemics: Phytogeographic patterns. Castanea 66: 50-82.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Florida State University Robert K. Godfrey Herbarium database. URL: Last accessed: October 2015. Collectors: Loran C. Anderson, D. Burch, Colette Burger, William B. Fox, Angus Gholson, R.K. Godfrey, Chuck Hess, Richard D. Houk, O. Lakela, S.W. Leonard, K.M. Meyer, Elmer C. Prichard, A.G. Shuey, Victoria I. Sullivan, Robert F. Thorne, A. Townesmith,D.B. Ward, Erdman West. States and Counties: Florida: Lake, Manatee, Marion, Highlands, Hillsborough, Pinellas, Putnam, Volusia. Compiled by Tall Timbers Research Station and Land Conservancy.
  5. Carrington, M. E. (1999). "Post-fire seedling establishment in Florida sand pine scrub." Journal of Vegetation Science 10(3): 403-412.
  6. Lindon, H. L. and E. Menges (2008). "Scientific note: effects of smoke on seed germination of twenty species of fire-prone habitats in Florida." Castanea 73: 106-110.
  7. Deyrup, M.A. and N.D. 2015. Database of observations of Hymenoptera visitations to flowers of plants on Archbold Biological Station, Florida, USA.
  8. Edwin Bridges, observation and photo posted to the Florida Flora and Ecosystematics Facebook Group.