|Photo taken by Gil Nelson|
|Division:||Magnoliophyta - Flowering plants|
|Class:||Magnoliopsida - Dicotyledons|
|Family:||Asteraceae ⁄ Compositae|
(L.) Greene ex Porter & Britton
|Natural range of Euthamia caroliniana from USDA NRCS Plants Database.|
Common names: Carolina goldentop; slender goldentop; slender flattop goldenrod; coastal plain goldentop
Synonyms: Euthamia minor (Michaux) Greene; E. tenuifolia; E. tenuifolia (Pursh) Nuttall var. microcephala Nuttall; Solidago microcephala (Nuttall) Bush
Varieties: Euthamia minor (Michaux) Greene; Solidago microcephala (Nuttall) Bush 
A description of Euthamia caroliniana is provided in The Flora of North America. Overall, it has grass-like leaves that contain tiny resin dots as well as only one vein or rib. It grows up to a meter tall from a branched and creeping rhizome. Inflorescence contains 10 to 20 flowers.
E. caroliniana is distributed from southern Maine south to southern Florida and west to southeastern Louisiana, and mainly along the southeast coastal plain. However, its distribution does extend into the Piedmont in some areas. It is also native to the Nova Scotia province in Canada.
Generally, E. caroliniana is found in moist forests, pine savannas, pastures, ditches, and other disturbed areas. It has been observed in a range of habitats including roadsides, pine flatwoods, barren sandhills, poorly drained areas, boggy margins, exposed sand in sparse woods, and other disturbed areas like roadside ditches. Soils observed are dry sand and various sandy loam.
Associated species include Liatris laevigata, Liatris gracilis, Polygonella polygama, Polygonella gracilis, Diodia teres, Diodia virginiana, Croptilion sp., Sisyrinchium sp., Dalea sp., Solidago sp., Acalypha gracilens, Chrysopsis lanuginosa, Rubus cuneifolius, Hypericum gentianoides, Trichostema dichotomum, Eupatorium compositifolium, and others.
This species is thought to be dispersed by wind. 
Seed bank and germination
It has been observed to commonly grow in habitats that are frequently burned and annually burned. The seeds of this plant were also seen to persist in the seed bank even after a fire disturbance.
Euthamia caroliniana has been observed at the Archbold Biological Station to host ground-nesting bees such as Andrena fulvipennis (family Andrenidae), bees from the family Apidae such as Apis mellifera, Bombus impatiens, and Epeolus carolinus, sweat bees from the family Colletidae such as Colletes mandibularis, C. simulans, C. thysanellae, and Hylaeus confluens, sweat bees from the family Halictidae such as Agapostemon splendens, Augochlorella aurata, Halictus poeyi, Lasioglossum nymphalis, L. placidensis, L. puteulanum, and Sphecodes heraclei, wasps from the family Leucospidae such as Leucospis affinis, L. affinis, L. robertsoni, and L. slossonae, leafcutting bees from the family Megachilidae such as Anthidiellum perplexum, Coelioxys dolichos, C. octodentata, C. sayi, Megachile albitarsis, and M. mendica, spider wasps from the family Pompilidae such as Anoplius atrox, A. marginalis, and Paracyphonyx funereus, thread-waisted wasps from the family Sphecidae such as Ammophila pictipennis, Anacrabro ocellatus, Bembix sayi, Cerceris blakei, Ectemnius rufipes ais, Epinysson mellipes, Isodontia exornata, Liris beata, Microbembex monodonta, Palmodes dimidiatus, Philanthus politus, P. ventilabris, Prionyx thomae, Tachysphex similis, and Tachytes validus, as well as wasps from the family Vespidae such as Euodynerus boscii boharti, E. hidalgo, Pachodynerus erynnis, Parancistrocerus salcularis rufulus, Polistes bellicosus, P. carolina, P. dorsalis hunteri, P. fuscatus, P. perplexus, Zethus slossonae, and Z. spinipes. Other members of the Hymenoptera order observed to pollinate E. caroliniana include Dialictus nymphalis, D. placidensis, D. tegulairs, Halictus ligatus, Tripeolus georgicus, and Xylocopa micans. Additionally, this species has been observed to host ground-nesting bees from the family Andrenidae such as Andrena braccata and A. hirticincta, bees from the family Apidae such as Bombus griseocollis and Melissodes druriella, plasterer bees from the family Colletidae such as Colletes americanus and Colletes speculiferus, and sweat bees from the family Halictidae such as Halictus rubicundus and Lasioglossum zephyrum. Overall, this species is recognized by pollination ecologists to be of special value for native bees since it attracts large numbers of native bees for pollination.
Herbivory and toxicology
E. caroliniana consists of approximately 2-5% of the diet for large mammals, small mammals, and various terrestrial birds.
Conservation, cultivation, and restoration
This species is listed as threatened by the Maine Department of Conservation, Natural Areas Program, and by the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources.
References and notes
- Weakley, A.S. 2020. Flora of the Southeastern United States. Edition of 20 October 2020. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
- [] Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center. Accessed: May 13, 2019
- [] NatureServe Explorer. Accessed: May 13, 2019
- USDA, NRCS. (2016). The PLANTS Database (http://plants.usda.gov, 13 May 2019). National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC 27401-4901 USA.
- Florida State University Robert K. Godfrey Herbarium database. URL: http://herbarium.bio.fsu.edu. Last accessed: May 2019. Collectors: Loran C. Anderson, Wilson Baker, - Boothes, Andre F. Clewell, Angus Gholson, Robert K. Godfrey, Faith Jackson, R. Komarek, T. MacClendon, Leon Neel, and R. A. Norris. States and Counties: Florida: Calhoun, Franklin, Gadsden, Gulf, Jackson, Lafayette, Leon, Liberty, Nassau, Wakulla, and Washington. Georgia: Baker, Grady, and Thomas. South Carolina: Richland.
- Nelson, G. PanFlora: Plant data for the eastern United States with emphasis on the Southeastern Coastal Plains, Florida, and the Florida Panhandle. www.gilnelson.com/PanFlora/ Accessed: 9 DEC 2016
- Kirkman, L. Katherine. Unpublished database of seed dispersal mode of plants found in Coastal Plain longleaf pine-grasslands of the Jones Ecological Research Center, Georgia.
- Navarra, J. J., N. Kohfeldt, et al. (2011). "Seed bank changes with time since fire in Florida rosemary scrub." Fire Ecology 7(2).
- Kalmbacher, R., et al. (2005). "Seeds obtained by vacuuming the soil surface after fire compared with soil seedbank in a flatwoods plant community." Native Plants Journal 6: 233-241.
- Deyrup, M.A. and N.D. 2015. Database of observations of Hymenoptera visitations to flowers of plants on Archbold Biological Station, Florida, USA.
- Deyrup, M. J. E., and Beth Norden (2002). "The diversity and floral hosts of bees at the Archbold Biological Station, Florida (Hymenoptera: Apoidea)." Insecta mundi 16(1-3).
- Hall, H. G. a. J. S. A. (2010). "Surveys of bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila) in natural areas of Alachua County in north-central Florida." The Florida Entomologist 93(4): 609-629.
- Discoverlife.org 
- Miller, J.H., and K.V. Miller. 1999. Forest plants of the southeast and their wildlife uses. Southern Weed Science Society.