Eupatorium album

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Eupatorium album
Eupatorium album Gil.jpg
Photo was taken by Gil Nelson
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta - Flowering plants
Class: Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae ⁄ Compositae
Genus: Eupatorium
Species: E. album
Binomial name
Eupatorium album
EUPA ALBU dist.jpg
Natural range of Eupatorium album from USDA NRCS Plants Database.

Common name: white thoroughwort; white-bracted thoroughwort

Taxonomic notes

Synonyms: none[1]

Varieties: Eupatorium album var. album; Eupatorium album var. glandulosum (Michaux) A.P. de Candolle[1]


A description of Eupatorium album is provided in The Flora of North America. Although the fruit is usually referred to as an achene, it is technically a cypsela.[2]


Eupatorium album can be found from Connecticut, New York, Ohio, and Tennessee south to Florida and Louisiana.[1]



E. album can generally be found in various dry woodlands.[1] It is found in sandhills, Longleaf pine-wiregrass savannas, evergreen scrub oak sand ridges, pine flatwoods, old fields, flatwoods, hammocks, seepage slopes, pine-palmetto flatwoods, in woods adjacent to sinkholes, and in well-drained Longleaf pinelands. It is also found in human disturbed areas such as roadsides, areas that have been clear cut, bulldozed, and in powerline corridors. It requires open to semi-shaded areas. It is associated with areas that have drying-loamy sand, wet-sandy loam, dry sand, gray-sand loam, dry-sparsely loamy sand soil types.[3] It does well in open canopy areas on longleaf pine habitats and does okay in areas that have been clear cut. [4] It is found in longleaf pine sandhill communities. [5] A study exploring longleaf pine patch dynamics found E. album to be most strongly represented within longleaf pine gaps and under patches of longleaf that are up to 180 years of age.[6] E. album is an indicator species for the Clayhill Longleaf Woodlands community type as described in Carr et al. (2010).[7]

E. album was found to reduce its occurrence in response to soil disturbance by agriculture in South Carolina's coastal plains and North Carolina's longleaf pinelands. It has shown resistance to regrowth in reestablished native habitat that was disturbed by agricultural practices, making it a remnant woodland indicator species.[8][9][10] E. album was found to increase in presence and frequency in response to soil disturbance by heavy silvilculture, clearcutting, and chopping in North Carolina and north Florida. It has shown regrowth in reestablished native longleaf pinelands and flatwood forests that were disturbed by these practices.[11][12]

Associated species include Eupatorium recurvans, E. mikanioides, E. rotundifolium, E. anomalum, E. compositifolium, E. aromaticum, Chamaecrista fasciculata, Sassafras albidum, Pteridium aquilinum, Quercus incana, Q laevis, Aristida beyrichiana, Serenoa repens, Ilex glabra, Rhynchospora, Xyris, Magnolia virginiana, E. rotundifolium, Solidago odora, Liatris gracilis, L. tenuifolia, L. elegans,Sericocarpus tortifolius, Rubus cuneufolius, Andropogon ternarius, Carphephorus corymbosus.[3]


Generally, E. album flowers from late June until September.[1] It has been observed flowering from July to November with peak inflorescence in July.[3][13] Kevin Robertson has observed this species flower within three months of burning. KMR

Seed dispersal

This species is thought to be dispersed by wind. [14]

Fire ecology

The species can commonly be found in fire dependent habitats.[3] Generally, it increases in abundance in response to fire disturbance,[15] and populations have been known to persist through repeated annual burning.[16] It flowers within three months of burning in the early spring to early summer. KMR It seems to benefit most in overall occurrence and biomass from winter burn regiments rather than spring or summer burn regiments.[17]

Conservation, cultivation, and restoration

E. album is listed as endangered by the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection and by the Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Division of Nature Preserves. It is also listed as threatened by the Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Natural Areas and Preserves, and listed as extirpated by the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources.[18]

Cultural use

Photo Gallery

References and notes

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Weakley, A.S. 2020. Flora of the Southeastern United States. Edition of 20 October 2020. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
  2. [[1]] Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center. Accessed: May 10, 2019
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Florida State University Robert K. Godfrey Herbarium database. URL: Last accessed: June 2014. Collectors: Loran C. Anderson, R.K. Godfrey, Robert L. Lazor, John Lazor, J. P. Gillespie, R. Kral, Victoria I. Sullivan, Brenda Herring, Don Herring, Delzie Demaree, Nancy E. Jordan, R. F. Doren, R. E. Perdue, S. C. Hood, Paul L. Redfearn, Jr., R. A. Norris, and R. Komarek. States and Counties: Florida: Bay, Calhoun, Citrus, Clay, Columbia, Escambia, Franklin, Gadsden, Gulf, Jackson, Jefferson, Lafayette, Leon, Levy, Liberty, Madison, Marion, Okaloosa, Santa Rosa, Taylor, Wakulla, and Washington. Georgia: Thomas.
  4. Brockway, D. G. and C. E. Lewis (2003). "Influence of deer, cattle grazing and timber harvest on plant species diversity in a longleaf pine bluestem ecosystem." Forest Ecology and Management 175: 49-69.
  5. Heuberger, K. A. and F. E. Putz (2003). "Fire in the suburbs: ecological impacts of prescribed fire in small remnants of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) sandhill." Restoration Ecology 11: 72-81.
  6. Mugnani et al. (2019). “Longleaf Pine Patch Dynamics Influence Ground-Layer Vegetation in Old-Growth Pine Savanna”.
  7. Carr, S.C., K.M. Robertson, and R.K. Peet. 2010. A vegetation classification of fire-dependent pinelands of Florida. Castanea 75:153-189.
  8. Brudvig, L.A. and E.I. Damchen. (2011). Land-use history, historical connectivity, and land management interact to determine longleaf pine woodland understory richness and composition. Ecography 34: 257-266.
  9. Brudvig, L.A., E Grman, C.W. Habeck, and J.A. Ledvina. (2013). Strong legacy of agricultural land use on soils and understory plant communities in longleaf pine woodlands. Forest Ecology and Management 310: 944-955.
  10. Brudvig, L.A., J.L. Orrock, E.I. Damschen, C.D. Collins, P.G. Hahn, W.B. Mattingly, J.W. Veldman, and J.L. Walker. (2014). Land-Use History and Contemporary Management Inform an Ecological Reference Model for Longleaf Pine Woodland Understory Plant Communities. PLoS ONE 9(1): e86604.
  11. Cohen, S., R. Braham, and F. Sanchez. (2004). Seed Bank Viability in Disturbed Longleaf Pine Sites. Restoration Ecology 12(4):503-515.
  12. Moore, W.H., B.F. Swindel, and W.S. Terry. (1982). Vegetative Response to Clearcutting and Chopping in a North Florida Flatwoods Forest. Journal of Range Management 35(2):214-218.
  13. Nelson, G. PanFlora: Plant data for the eastern United States with emphasis on the Southeastern Coastal Plains, Florida, and the Florida Panhandle. Accessed: 10 MAY 2019
  14. Kirkman, L. Katherine. Unpublished database of seed dispersal mode of plants found in Coastal Plain longleaf pine-grasslands of the Jones Ecological Research Center, Georgia.
  15. Moore, W. H., et al. (1982). "Vegetative response to prescribed fire in a north Florida flatwoods forest." Journal of Range Management 35: 386-389.
  16. Robertson, K.M. Unpublished data collected from Pebble Hill Fire Plots, Pebble Hill Plantation, Thomasville, Georgia.
  17. Kush, J. S., et al. (2000). Understory plant community response to season of burn in natural longleaf pine forests. Proceedings 21st Tall Timbers Fire Ecology Conference. Fire and forest ecology: innovative silviculture & vegetation management, Tallahassee, FL, Tall Timbers Research, Inc.
  18. USDA, NRCS. (2016). The PLANTS Database (, 10 May 2019). National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC 27401-4901 USA.