Eryngium integrifolium

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Common Names: blueflower eryngo[1]; savanna eryngo

Eryngium integrifolium
Eryngium integrifolium AFP.jpg
Photo by the Atlas of Florida Plants Database
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta - Flowering plants
Class: Magnoliopsida - Dicots
Order: Apiales
Family: Apiaceae
Genus: Eryngium
Species: E. integrifolium
Binomial name
Eryngium integrifolium
Natural range of Eryngium integrifolium from USDA NRCS Plants Database.

Taxonomic Notes

Synonyms: E. ludovicianum Morong.[2]

Varieties: none.[2]


E. intregrifolium is a perennial forb/herb of the Apiaceae family that is native to North America.[1] It has a long-lived life cycle.[3] Average maximum root depth was found to be approximately 9.5 cm, and average root porosity was found to be 42 percent.[4]


E. intregrifolium is found throughout the southeastern United States, as far west as Texas. [1] Within this distribution, it is distributed from southeast Virginia in Greensville county and eastern North Carolina, south to northeast Florida and the pandhandle, west to Texas and Oklahoma, and inland in central Tennessee.[5]



Generally, E. integrifolium can be found in pine flatwoods, savannas, seepages, and other moist and nutrient-poor areas.[5] Common habitats that many specimens have been collected from include roadside ditches, marshes, savanna pineland, pine flatwoods, wet flatwoods, and boggy wet depressions. Soils include wet and drying sandy loam, sandy peat, and other sandy wet soils.[6] It is also listed by the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service as a facultative wetland species, where it most often occurs in wetland habitats, but can also occasionally be found in non-wetland habitats.[1] In Florida, it is also considered an indicator species of the panhandle seepage savannas.[7]

Associated species include Juncus trigonocarpus, Sarracenia leucophylla, Aristida palustris, Sphagnum sp., Lobelia georgiana, Oxypolus sp., Coreopsis sp., Buchnera floridana, Hypericum opacum, Xyris elliottii, Habenaria integra, Polygala ramosa, Polygala lutea, Ctenium aromaticum, Hibiscus aculeatus, Macranthera flammea, and Arnoglossum sulcatum.[6]

Eryngium intergrifolium is an indicator species for the Panhandle Seepage Savannas community type as described in Carr et al. (2010).[8]


E. intregrifolium generally flowers from August until October.[5] It has been observed flowering between July and September. [9] It has been observed fruiting in August and September.[6]

Fire ecology

It has been observed to occur in habitats that are commonly burned.[6]


This species is considered to be of special value to native bees since it attracts large numbers of native bees to pollinate.[10]

Conservation, cultivation, and restoration

This species is listed as endangered by the Kentucky State Nature Preserves Commission.[1] It is also considered critically imperiled in the states of Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Oklahoma, and is considered imperiled in Arkansas.[11]

Cultural use

Photo Gallery

References and notes

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 USDA Plant Database
  2. 2.0 2.1 Weakley, A.S. 2015. Flora of the southern and mid-atlantic states. Working Draft of 21 May 2015. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
  3. Hinman, S. E. and J. S. Brewer (2007). "Responses of Two Frequently-Burned Wet Pine Savannas to an Extended Period without Fire." The Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 134(4): 512-526.
  4. Brewer, J. S., et al. (2011). "Carnivory in plants as a beneficial trait in wetlands." Aquatic Botany 94: 62-70.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Weakley, A. S. (2015). Flora of the Southern and Mid-Atlantic States. Chapel Hill, NC, University of North Carolina Herbarium.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 URL: Last accessed: June 2018. Collectors: Loran Anderson, T.MacClendon, Ed Keppner, Lisa Keppner, R.K.Godfrey, Almut Jones, Bruce Hansen, A.H. Curtiss, S.W. Leonard, Dr. Horton Hobbs, R.F. Thorne, R.A. Davidson, R.A. Pursell, Robert Norris, Sidney McDaniel, Rodie White, A.Gholson, M. Jenkins. States and counties: Florida (Calhoun, Bay, Santa Rosa, Wakulla, Franklin, Escambia, Jackson, Leon, Calhoun, Jefferson, Walton, Liberty) Georgia (Thomas, Grady)
  7. Carr, S. C., et al. (2010). "A Vegetation Classification of Fire-Dependent Pinelands of Florida." Castanea 75(2): 153-189.
  8. Carr, S.C., K.M. Robertson, and R.K. Peet. 2010. A vegetation classification of fire-dependent pinelands of Florida. Castanea 75:153-189.
  9. Nelson, G. PanFlora: Plant data for the eastern United States with emphasis on the Southeastern Coastal Plains, Florida, and the Florida Panhandle. Accessed: 21 MAY 2018
  10. [[1]] Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center. Accessed: May 10, 2019
  11. [[2]] NatureServe Explorer. Accessed: May 10, 2019