Eleocharis tricostata

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Eleocharis tricostata
Eleocharis obtusa obtusa ahaines GB.jpg
Photo by © Arthur Haines, New England Wild Flower Society
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta - Flowering plants
Class: Liliopsida - Moncots
Order: Poales
Family: Cyperaceae
Genus: Eleocharis
Species: E. tricostata
Binomial name
Eleocharis tricostata
Natural range of Eleocharis tricostata from USDA NRCS Plants Database.

Common names: three-angle spikerush[1][2]

Taxonomic Notes

Synonyms: none.[3]

Varieties: none.[3]


Eleocharis tricostata is a perennial, monoecious, graminoid sedge.[2]


This sedge ranges from Massachusetts to Florida with sporadic occurrences inland in Michigan[4] and Louisiana.[2] It is a mostly coastal plain endemic that is disjunct to the Great Lakes region.[5]



E. tricostata is an obligate wetland species[2] found in wet pine savannas, bogs,[1] cypress gum swamps, marshes, swales, flatwoods,[6] wet soil of pond margins, and infrequently in saline marshes.[4] Occurrences in such areas show the plants preference for sandy, peaty, and mucky soils.[6] This species has also been observed in a dried up pond, cypress-gum depression, in muck on a swamp border, wet margins, boggy swales, and in sand.[7] In New York, this species is noted to be rare, restricted to pond-shores and only seen in low water years.[8]

Associated species: Taxodium sp., Serenoa repens, Typha sp., Eleocharis sp., Echinodorous sp., Nyssa sp., Rhexia mariana, Dichanthelium wrightianum, and others.[7]


It flowers and fruits between July and September.[1] E. tricostata has been observed to flower April through July and September, and fruit from the same time period.[7]

Conservation, cultivation, and restoration

This species is listed as endangered by the Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife, Natural Heritage and Endangered Species Program, by the New York Department of Environmental Conservation, Division of Land and Forests, and by the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management. It is also listed as endangered and extirpated by the Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Natural Heritage Program, as threatened by the Michigan Department of Natural Resources, Natural Features Inventory, and as extirpated by the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources.[2] It has a global status of G4 since it is considered rare and is most likely threatened by alteration of habitat.[6]

Cultural use

Photo Gallery

References and notes

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Weakley A. S.(2015). Flora of the Southern and Mid-Atlantic States. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Herbarium.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 USDA, NRCS. (2016). The PLANTS Database (http://plants.usda.gov, 5 December 2017). National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC 27401-4901 USA.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Weakley, A.S. 2015. Flora of the southern and mid-atlantic states. Working Draft of 21 May 2015. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Ward D. B. and Leigh E. M. (1975). Contributions to the Flora of Florida: 8, Eleocharis (Cyperaceae). Castanea 40(1):16-36.
  5. Sorrie, B. A. and A. S. Weakley (2001). "Coastal plain vascular plant endemics: Phytogeographic Patterns." Castanea 66(1/2): 50-82.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 NatureServe. (2017). NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed: December 6, 2017 ). Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "NatureServe" defined multiple times with different content
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 Florida State University Robert K. Godfrey Herbarium database. URL: http://herbarium.bio.fsu.edu. Last accessed: May 2019. Collectors: Loran C. Anderson, George R. Cooley, A. H. Curtiss, R. A. Davidson, R. K. Godfrey, R. S. Mitchell, Gwynn W. Ramsey, Annie Schmidt, R. F. Thorne, and Carroll E. Wood, Jr. States and Counties: Florida: Calhoun, Clay, Duval, Gadsden, Hernando, Jackson, Liberty, Madison, and Wakulla.
  8. Zaremba, R. E. and E. E. Lamont (1993). "The status of the coastal plain pondshore community in New York." Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 120(2): 180-187.