Dichanthelium strigosum

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Dichanthelium strigosum
Dich strig.jpg
Photo taken by Kevin Robertson
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta - Flowering plants
Class: Liliopsida – Monocotyledons
Order: Poales
Family: Poaceae ⁄ Gramineae
Genus: Dichanthelium
Species: D. strigosum
Binomial name
Dichanthelium strigosum
(Muhl. ex Elliott) Freckmann
DICH STRI dist.jpg
Natural range of Dichanthelium strigosum from USDA NRCS Plants Database.

Common names: Roughhair rosette grass; Roughhair witchgrass

Taxonomic notes

Synonym: Panicum strigosum Muhl. ex Elliott The Plant List.org, D. leucoblepharis (Trinius) Gould & Clark var. pubescens (Vasey) Gould & Clark

Variety: Dichanthelium strigosum (Muhlenberg) Freckmann var. leucoblepharis (Trinius) Freckman; Dichanthelium strigosum (Muhlenberg) Freckmann var. glabrescens (Grisebach) Freckmann

Description

Dichanthelium strigosum is a perennial graminoid theat tends to grow in thick mats. [1]

Generally, for the Dichanthelium genus, they have "spikelets usually in panicles, round or nearly so in cross section, 2-flowered, terminal fertile, basal sterile, neutral or staminate. First glume usually present, 2nd glume and sterile lemma similar; fertile lemma and palea indurate without hyaline margins. Taxonomically our most difficult and least understood genus of grasses, more than 100 species an varieties are ascribed to the Carolinas by some authors. Note general descriptions for species groups (e.g., 1-4, 5-8, 9-13, and 26-62)." [2]

Specifically, for the D. strigosum species, they are "perennial with distinct basal rosettes; branching, when present, from nodes above basal rosette. Leaves basal and cauline, vernal and autumnal. Culms 1-5 dm tall, nodes bearded, internodes long pilose. Blades to 6 cm long, 2-6 mm wide, softly pilose on both surfaces, margins long ciliate; sheaths pilose to almost glabrous; ligules ciliate, 1-2.5 mm long. Panicle 5-7 cm long, 3-5.5 cm broad; rachis long pilose, branches ascending-spreading, pilose basally. Spikelets obovoid to broadly ellipsoid, 1.2-1.6 mm long; pedicels smoothish. First glume glabrous,, acute, or obtuse, 0.8-1 mm long, 2nd glume and sterile lemma glabrous, acute, 1.2 mm long; fertile lemma and palea 1-1.2 mm long. Grain 0.8-1 mm long, yellowish or purplish, broadly ellipsoid or subglobose." [2]

Distribution

Ecology

Habitat

It can be found in relatively undisturbed areas,[3] including longleaf pine savannas,[4] saw palmetto-wax myrtle thickets, sandhill ridges, and bogs. [1] However, D. strigosum also occurs in disturbed areas like power line corridors, roadsides, fields, and clear-cuts. [1] This species seems to prefer moist sandy soils. [1]

Associated species include Rhynchospora pusilla, Ludwigia linifolia, Andropogon, Schizachyrium, Eupatorium, Serenoa repens, Juniperus, Schoenus. [1]

Phenology

Flowering and fruiting has been observed in February, as well as April through August. [1]

Seed dispersal

Seed dispersed by gravity.[5]

Seed bank and germination

D. strigosum was found in the seed banks of longleaf pine and ecotone (scrub and longleaf) habitats in the western panhandle region of Florida. [6]

Fire ecology

It can tolerate biennial, early growing season prescribed fires.[4]

Conservation and management

Cultivation and restoration

Photo Gallery

References and notes

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Florida State University Robert K. Godfrey Herbarium database. URL: http://herbarium.bio.fsu.edu. Last accessed: June 2014. Collectors: Cecil R. Slaughter, Loran C. Anderson, S. W. Leonard, A. E. Radford, H. L. Blomquist, D. S. Correll, Wm. G. Atwater, Robert Kral, O. Lakela, R. Komarek, K. E. Blum, R.K. Godfrey, Ed Tyson, A. F. Clewell, Annie Schmidt, Wilson Baker, Richard W. Pohl, Frank W. Gould, and H. Kurz. States and Counties: Alabama: Convington. Florida: Bay, Brevard, Dade, Escambia, Franklin, Hillsborough, Indian River, Jefferson, Lafayette, Lee, Leon, Madison, Nassau, Okaloosa, Polk, Wakulla, and Washington. Georgia : Baker and Thomas. North Carolina: Brunswick. South Carolina: Greenwood and Jasper. Other Countries: Panama (United States of America).
  2. 2.0 2.1 Radford, Albert E., Harry E. Ahles, and C. Ritchie Bell. Manual of the Vascular Flora of the Carolinas. 1964, 1968. The University of North Carolina Press. 142-151. Print.
  3. Thaxton, J. M. (2003). Effects of fire intensity on groundcover shrubs in a frequently burned longleaf pine savanna. Ann Arbor, MI, Louisiana State University and Agricultural & Mechanical College. Ph.D.: 146. Kirkman, L. K., K. L. Coffey, et al. (2004). "Ground cover recovery patterns and life-history traits: implications for restoration obstacles and opportunities in a species-rich savanna." Journal of Ecology 92(3): 409-421.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Thaxton, J. M. (2003). Effects of fire intensity on groundcover shrubs in a frequently burned longleaf pine savanna. Ann Arbor, MI, Louisiana State University and Agricultural & Mechanical College. Ph.D.: 146.
  5. Kirkman, L. K., K. L. Coffey, et al. (2004). "Ground cover recovery patterns and life-history traits: implications for restoration obstacles and opportunities in a species-rich savanna." Journal of Ecology 92(3): 409-421.
  6. Ruth, A. D., et al. 2008. Seed bank dynamics of sand pine scrub and longleaf pine flatwoods of the Gulf Coastal Plain (Florida). Ecological Restoration 26:19-21.