Croptilon divaricatum

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Croptilon divaricatum
Croptilon divaricatum Gil.jpg
Photo was taken by Gil Nelson
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta - Flowering plants
Class: Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae ⁄ Compositae
Genus: Croptilon
Species: C. divaricatum
Binomial name
Croptilon divaricatum
(Nutt.) Raf.
CROP DIVA dist.jpg
Natural range of Croptilon divaricatum from USDA NRCS Plants Database.

Common name: scratch-daisy, slender scratchdaisy

Taxonomic notes

Synonyms: Haplopappus divaricatus (Nuttall) A. Gray; Isopappus divaricatus (Nuttall) Torrey & Gray[1]

Varieties: none[1]


A description of Croptilon divaricatum is provided in The Flora of North America.


Occurs in the U.S. Gulf States in areas that have sandy soil where pocket gophers inhabit. This gives the area the characteristic disturbed appearance, bare ground and freshly turned patches of soil. [2] It is found occasionally in disturbed areas as defined in - Analysis of Longleaf Pine Sandhill Vegetation in Northwest Florida - in the bluestem-dominant plots.[3]


Pine thinning resulted in significantly higher frequencies of C. divaricatum after 5 and 8 years.[4]


Croptilon divaricatum is found in Longleaf pine-wiregrass savannas[4], turkey oak sand ridges, and edges of hardwood swamps and hillside bogs. It is also found in human disturbed areas, such as roadsides, fallow fields, and orange groves. This species requires high light levels and is associated with areas of sandy loam, clayey soil, and sandy soil types.[5]

C. divaricatum is found in open areas near the edges of mixed pine-hardwood forests and wetlands, at boundaries between or near 2 or more natural communities in Alachua County, Florida,[6] and at the Sandhill Research and Education Center in South Carolina where soil series include Lakeland sands, loamy sands, which are mostly entisols (arenic and grosarenic quartzipsamments) with high permeability and low available water capacity. Previously, the Center was an agricultural area, so some of the land includes mosaic old-fields, pine stands, scrub oak dominated forests, and forested wetlands.[7]

Associated species include Aster, Conyza, Lygodesmia, Liatris, Panicum, Leptoloma oognatum, and others. [5]


It is a summer annual.[2] It has been observed fruiting in October and November. [5]

Seed dispersal

This species is thought to be dispersed by wind. [8]

Fire ecology

It is found in frequently burned areas, such as Longleaf pine savannas. [5]


Bees were captured on Croptilon divaricatum.[6]

Herbivory and toxicology

Additionally, this species has been observed to host ground-nesting bees from the Andrenidae family such as Perdita bishoppi, P. cambarella and P. ignota, as well as plant bugs from the Miridae family such as Lygus lineolaris and Pseudatomoscelis seriatus.[9]

Conservation, cultivation, and restoration

Cultural use

Photo Gallery

References and notes

  1. 1.0 1.1 Weakley, A.S. 2020. Flora of the Southeastern United States. Edition of 20 October 2020. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Shaal, B. A., Wesley J. Leverich (1982). "Survivorship Patterns in an Annual plant community." oecologia 54(2): 149-151.
  3. Rodgers, H. L., and Louis Provencher (1999). "Analysis of Longleaf Pine Sandhill Vegetation in Northwest Florida." castanea 64(2): 138-162.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Harrington, T. B. (2011). "Overstory and understory relationships in longleaf pine plantations 14 years after thinning and woody control." Canadian Journal of Forest Research 41: 2301-2314.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 Florida State University Robert K. Godfrey Herbarium database. URL: Last accessed: June 2014. Collectors: Loran C. Anderson, Cecil R. Slaughter, Tara Baridi, Rex Ellis, L. Baltzell, Bruce Hansen, JoAnn Hansen, Paul L. Redfearn, Jr., C. Jackson, Robert K. Godfrey, John B. Nelson, Cortland S. Hill, A. H. Curtiss, Gary R. Knight, P. Genelle, G. Fleming, James D. Ray, Jr., Richard S. Mitchell, Andre F. Clewell, Cortland S. Hill, R. R. Smith, Gary H. Morton, Jeri Kirkland, D. B. Ward, R. Kral, Kathleen Craddock Burks, H. E. Grelen, R. A. Norris, and R. Komarek. States and Counties: Florida: Bay, Calhoun, Citrus, Clay, Dade, Dixie, Escambia, Gadsden, Hernando, Jackson, Jefferson, Lake, Leon, Liberty, Madison, Okaloosa, Putnam, Wakulla, and Walton. Georgia: Grady and Thomas.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Hall, H. G. a. J. S. A. (2010). "Surveys of bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila) in natural areas of Alachua County in north-central Florida." The Florida Entomologist 93(4): 609-629.
  7. Jenkins, R. A., and Patrick D. McMillan (2009). "Vascular Flora of Sandhill Research and Education Center, Richland County, South Carolina." Castanea 74(2): 168-180.
  8. Kirkman, L. Katherine. Unpublished database of seed dispersal mode of plants found in Coastal Plain longleaf pine-grasslands of the Jones Ecological Research Center, Georgia.
  9. [1]