Baccharis halimifolia

From Coastal Plain Plants Wiki
Jump to: navigation, search
Baccharis halimifolia
Bacc hali.jpg
Photo by John R. Gwaltney, Southeastern Flora.com
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta - Flowering plants
Class: Magnoliopsida - Dicotyledons
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae ⁄ Compositae
Genus: Baccharis
Species: B. halimifolia
Binomial name
Baccharis halimifolia
L.
BACC BALM dist.jpg
Natural range of Baccharis halimifolia from USDA NRCS Plants Database.

Common names: Eastern baccharis; SIlverling; high-tide bush; mullet bush; groundsel tree

Taxonomic notes

Synonym: Baccharis halimifolia var. angustior de Candolle The Flora of North America.

Description

A description of Baccharis halimifolia is provided in The Flora of North America.

Baccharis genus are dioecious, glabrous shrubs. They are rarely small trees. The leaves are alternate, fleshy, toothed or entire. The heads pedunculated or sessile, most of the time in 3-5 glomerules. The involucres are cylindric, 4-5 mm long, 2.5-3.5 mm broad. The bracts are imbricate, sometimes purplish in color, and obtuse. The flowers are discoid and yellowish in color. The nutlets are tan in color, lustrous, cylindric, 10-ribbed, glabrous, and 1.2-1.5 mm long. The pappus bristles are white to tan in color. The capillary is 7-10 mm long.[1] Specifically for B. halimifolia, is a shrub, growing to approximately 1-4 m tall. The leaves are elliptic to obovate, rarely ovate; are coarsely serrate but mostly towards the apex, rarely entire. The leaves grow 3-7 cm long and 1-4 cm wide. The petioles are 5-12 mm long. The involucres are mostly in pedunculated glomerules. [1]

Distribution

Ecology

Phenology

B. halimifolia has been observed to flower in February and between September to December.[2]

Seed dispersal

This species is thought to be dispersed by wind. [3]

Pollination

The following Hymenoptera families and species were observed visiting flowers of Baccharis halimifolia' at Archbold Biological Station. [4]

Apidae: Apis mellifera

Apidae: Bombus impatiens

Colletidae: Colletes mandibularis, C. simulans, C. thysanellae

Halictidae: Agapostemon splendens, Augochlora pura, Augochlorella aurata, Augochloropsis metallica, Halictus poeyi, Lasioglossum miniatulus, L. nymphalis, L. puteulanum, Sphecodes heraclei

Leucospidae: Leucospis affinis

Leucospididae: Leucospis affinis, L. robertsoni, L. slossonae

Pompilidae: Anoplius atramentaius, A. parsoni, Episyron conterminus posterus, Poecilopompilus algidus, P. interruptus

Sphecidae: Bicyrtes quadrifasciata, Cerceris blakei, C. flavofasciata floridensis, C. tolteca, Ectemnius decemmaculatus tequesta, E. rufipes ais, Larra bicolor, Oxybelus decorosum, O. laetus fulvipes, Palmodes dimidiatus, Philanthus ventilabris, Tachytes distinctus, T. floridanus, T. pepticus, T. validus

Vespidae: Pachodynerus erynnis, Parancistrocerus salcularis rufulus, Polistes bellicosus, P. dorsalis hunteri, P. fuscatus, P. metricus, P. perplexus, Stenodynerus beameri, S. fundatiformis, S. lineatifrons, Vespula squamosa, Zethus slossonae, Zethus spinipes

Conservation and management

Cultivation and restoration

Photo Gallery

References and notes

  1. 1.0 1.1 Radford, Albert E., Harry E. Ahles, and C. Ritchie Bell. Manual of the Vascular Flora of the Carolinas. 1964, 1968. The University of North Carolina Press. 635-6. Print
  2. Nelson, G. PanFlora: Plant data for the eastern United States with emphasis on the Southeastern Coastal Plains, Florida, and the Florida Panhandle. www.gilnelson.com/PanFlora/ Accessed: 7 DEC 2016
  3. Kirkman, L. Katherine. Unpublished database of seed dispersal mode of plants found in Coastal Plain longleaf pine-grasslands of the Jones Ecological Research Center, Georgia.
  4. Deyrup, M.A. 2015. Database of observations of Hymenoptera visitations to flowers of plants on Archbold Biological Station, Florida, USA.