|photo by Gil Nelson|
|Division:||Magnoliophyta - Flowering plants|
|Class:||Magnoliopsida - Dicotyledons|
|Natural range of Asclepias variegata from USDA NRCS Plants Database.|
Common names: Redring milkweed; White milkweed
Asclepias is named for Asklepio, the Greek god of medicine and healing.
Synonyms: Biventraria variegata (Linnaeus) Small
In general, with the Asclepias genus, they are perennial herbs usually milky sap. The stems are erect, spreading or decumbent and usually are simple and often solitary. The leaves are opposite to subopposite, are sometimes whorled, and rarely alternate. The corolla lobes are reflexed and are rarely erect or spreading. The filaments are elaborate into five hood forming a corona around the gynosteguim. The corona horns are present in most species.
More specifically, for A. variegata, the stems are simple, solitary, weakly pubescent or glabrate, and are approximately 20 - 100 cm tall. The leaves are opposite, have 2 - 5 pairs, suborbicular to ovate or widely elliptic-lanceolate, are 5 - 14 cm long and 3 - 7 cm wide; the lower leaves are usually quite reduced in size. The leaves are firm, glabrous or very weakly pubescent, especially above. There are 1 - 4 umbels, that are terminal or from upper nodes, are globose, and are 3 - 6cm broad. The pedicels are 1 - 2 cm long. The flower is bright white in color with reflexed lobes 6 - 7 mm long. The corona is 4 - 7 mm in diameter. The horns are shorter than the hoods. The follicles are 10 - 14 cm long, 1.5 - 2 cm broad.
It is found from Connecticut west to Ohio, south to eastern Texas, and east to Florida.
Asclepias variegata is found in upland pine-oak forests and woodlands, and in mesic hammocks. Additionally, it occurs on bluffs and slopes, burned pinelands, and annually burned savannas. It prefers higher light levels, growing mainly in sunny to semi-shaded environments, and is usually found in drying loamy sand or moist sandy loam. It also appears in disturbed habitat such as park trails and the borders of clear-cuts.
Associated species include pine, oak, hickory, magnolia, maple, sweet gum, juniper, Rubus brambles, Vaccinium, Chionanthus and others.
Seeds are wind dispersed.
Pollination of Asclepias is unusual. Pollen is contained in sacs (pollinia) located in the slits of the flower (stigmatic slits), when a pollinator walks across the flower head, these sacs attach to the pollinator and disperses on to another plant when the pollinator lands and walks. There is no specialist insect pollinator. However, observations of pollination have occured in Jackson County, FL, with beetles, a lovebug, and a wasp. It also is a nector plant for butterflies but its leaves are not as attractive to monarchs and queens as a larval host compared to other similar species.
Herbivory and toxicology
Not an important host plant to monarch butterfly caterpillars due to its tendency to occur in low densities in shaded areas, making it harder to find. Bobwhite quails eat the seeds. Contains toxic cardiac glycosides and is avoided by mammalian herbivores.
Conservation, cultivation, and restoration
References and notes
- []Florida Native Plant Society. Accessed: March 30, 2016
- Weakley, A.S. 2020. Flora of the Southeastern United States. Edition of 20 October 2020. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
- Radford, Albert E., Harry E. Ahles, and C. Ritchie Bell. Manual of the Vascular Flora of the Carolinas. 1964, 1968. The University of North Carolina Press. 848-852. Print.
- Wunderlin, Richard P. and Bruce F. Hansen. Guide to the Vascular Plants of Florida. Third edition. 2011. University Press of Florida: Gainesville/Tallahassee/Tampa/Boca Raton/Pensacola/Orlando/Miami/Jacksonville/Ft. Myers. 271. Print.
- Florida State University Robert K. Godfrey Herbarium database. URL: http://herbarium.bio.fsu.edu. Last accessed: June 2014. Collectors: Loran C. Anderson, Robert K. Godfrey, H. Kurz, K. Craddock Burks, James R. Burkhalter, L G Plank, Gary R. Knight, Andre F. Clewell, R. Kral, Richard S. Mitchell, Lisa Keppner, Ed Keppner, D.C. Hunt, R. Komarek, Wilson Baker, and R. F. Doren. States and Counties: Florida: Leon, Santa Rosa, Okaloosa, Jackson, Gadsden, Liberty, Jefferson, Wakulla, Walton, and Bay. Georgia: Grady and Thomas.
- Nelson, G. PanFlora: Plant data for the eastern United States with emphasis on the Southeastern Coastal Plains, Florida, and the Florida Panhandle. www.gilnelson.com/PanFlora/ Accessed: 19 MAY 2021
- []Xerces Society. Accessed: March 30, 2016
- Observation by Floyd Griffith in Jackson County, FL, May 22, 2016, posted to Florida Flora and Ecosystematics Facebook Group May 22, 2016
- Observation by Floyd Griffith in Jackson County, FL, May 1, 2016, posted to Florida Flora and Ecosystematics Facebook Group May 1, 2016.
- Observation by Roger Hammer in St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge, Wakulla County, FL, March 23, 2017, posted to Florida Flora and Ecosystematics Facebook Group March 27, 2017.
- []Ozark Edge Wildflowers
- []Illinois Wild Flowers.