Angelica dentata

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Angelica dentata
Angelica dentata.JPG
Photo taken by Kevin Robertson
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta - Flowering plants
Class: Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Order: Apiales
Family: Apiaceae ⁄ Umbelliferae
Genus: Angelica
Species: A. dentata
Binomial name
Angelica dentata
(Chapm.) J.M. Coult. & Rose
ANGE DENT dist.jpg
Natural range of Angelica dentata from USDA NRCS Plants Database.

Common names: Coastal Plain angelica; Sandhill angelica

Taxonomic notes

Description

Perennial herb with erect, hairless stems 20 - 40 inches (50 - 100 cm) tall. Leaves with long leaf stalks, each leaf divided into several, leathery, lance-shaped, coarsely toothed leaflets. Flower clusters flat-topped, composed of 5 - 12 smaller clusters of tiny, white flowers; flower stalks hairless. Flowers with 5 white, spreading petals. Fruit about ¼ inch (5 - 6 mm) long, hairless, oval, flattened, ribbed, and winged.[1] Flowers are arranged in umbels and are compound and bisexual.[2]

Distribution

It is found in southwest and south-central Georgia and in the eastern part of the panhandle of Florida.[3]

Ecology

Habitat

A. dentata is restricted to native groundcover and is commonly associated with upland pinelands of South Georgia.[4] Habitats include sandhills, longleaf pine-wiregrass savannas, longleaf-scrub oaks, boggy areas, and pine flatwoods. It occurs in disturbed areas such as roadsides and logged fields. Thrives in areas that are open or semi-shaded. Soils include dry sand, gravelly soil, loamy sand and dry and moist loamy soil.[5][3] Associated species include Croton, Pinus palustris, Quercus laevis, Q. margaretta, Rhynchosia, Symphyotrichum dumosum, Carphephorus odoratissiumus, C. paniculatus, Chrysopsis spp., and Symphiotrichum dumosum.[5]

Phenology

Angelica dentata has been observed to flower June through January.[5][6]

Seed dispersal

Seeds are dispersed by gravity and small animals.[1]

Fire ecology

It can be found in frequently burned areas such as longleaf pine savannas.[5]

Pollination

Pollinated by wasps, flies, beetles and bees.[1] In Franklin County, FL, wasp pollinators include those from Vespidae.[7]

Conservation and management

Threats include conversion of habitat to pine plantations, agriculture, pastures, development and fire suppression.[1]

Cultivation and restoration

Photo Gallery

References and notes

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 [[1]]Georgia Wildlife. Accessed: March 29, 2016
  2. [[2]]Accessed: March 29, 2016
  3. 3.0 3.1 Weakley, Alan S. Flora of the Southern and Mid-Atlantic States: Working Draft of 21 May 2015. University of North Carolina Herbarium (NCU). PDF. 1227.
  4. Ostertag, T.E., and K.M. Robertson. 2007. A comparison of native versus old-field vegetation in upland pinelands managed with frequent fire, South Georgia, USA. Pages 109–120 in R.E. Masters and K.E.M. Galley (eds.). Proceedings of the 23rd Tall Timbers Fire Ecology Conference: Fire in Grassland and Shrubland Ecosystems.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 Florida State University Robert K. Godfrey Herbarium database. URL: http://herbarium.bio.fsu.edu. Last accessed: June 2014. Collectors: L. C. Anderson, W. Baker, B. Boothe, M. Boothe, A. F. Clewell, V. Craig, M. A. Garland, R. K. Godfrey, R. Kral, E. Keppner, L. Keppner, R. Komarek, T. MacClendon, K. MacClendon, R. A. Pursell, H. Roth, and R. White. States and Counties: Florida: Bay, Calhoun, Franklin, Gadsden, Jackson, Leon, Liberty, and Wakulla. Georgia: Decatur, Grady, and Thomas.
  6. Nelson, G. PanFlora: Plant data for the eastern United States with emphasis on the Southeastern Coastal Plains, Florida, and the Florida Panhandle. www.gilnelson.com/PanFlora/ Accessed: 7 DEC 2016
  7. Observation by Floyd Griffith in Franklin County, FL, November 14, 2015, posted to Florida Flora and Ecosystematics Facebook group November 16, 2015.