Difference between revisions of "Solidago odora"

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(Seed bank and germination)
 
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Associated species include ''Liatris, Panicum, Leptoloma cognata, Pityopsis graminifolia, Quercus minima, Q. laevis, Phyla nodiflora, Solidago puberula, Asclepias, Scutellaria floridana, Balduina, and Sporobolus.'' <ref name=fsu/>
 
Associated species include ''Liatris, Panicum, Leptoloma cognata, Pityopsis graminifolia, Quercus minima, Q. laevis, Phyla nodiflora, Solidago puberula, Asclepias, Scutellaria floridana, Balduina, and Sporobolus.'' <ref name=fsu/>
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''Solidago odora'' var. ''odora'' is frequent and abundant in the Panhandle Xeric Sandhills community type and is an indicator species for the Clayhill Longleaf Woodlands community type as described in Carr et al. (2010).<ref>Carr, S.C., K.M. Robertson, and R.K. Peet. 2010. A vegetation classification of fire-dependent pinelands of Florida. Castanea 75:153-189.</ref>
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''Solidago odora'' var. ''chapmanii'' is an indicator species for the Xeric Flathills community type as described in Carr et al. (2010).<ref>Carr, S.C., K.M. Robertson, and R.K. Peet. 2010. A vegetation classification of fire-dependent pinelands of Florida. Castanea 75:153-189.</ref>
  
 
===Phenology=== <!--Timing off flowering, fruiting, seed dispersal, and environmental triggers.  Cite PanFlora website if appropriate: http://www.gilnelson.com/PanFlora/ -->
 
===Phenology=== <!--Timing off flowering, fruiting, seed dispersal, and environmental triggers.  Cite PanFlora website if appropriate: http://www.gilnelson.com/PanFlora/ -->
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===Seed bank and germination===
 
===Seed bank and germination===
''S. odora'' var. ''chapmanii'' does not seem to form a large persistent seed bank.<ref name=mr04/> However, ''S. odora'' has been shown to persist in the seedbank for at least two years.<ref name=cof> Coffey, K. L. and L. K. Kirkman (2006). "Seed germination strategies of species with restoration potential in a fire-maintained pine savanna." Natural Areas Journal 26: 289-299. </ref> Between fires, ''S. odora'' var. ''chapmanii'' can persist as suppressed ramets (a persistent bud bank), which can give it an advantage over competitors. <ref name=mr04/>
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''S. odora'' var. ''chapmanii'' does not seem to form a large persistent seed bank.<ref name=mr04/> However, ''S. odora'' has been shown to persist in the seedbank for at least two years.<ref name=cof> Coffey, K. L. and L. K. Kirkman (2006). "Seed germination strategies of species with restoration potential in a fire-maintained pine savanna." Natural Areas Journal 26: 289-299. </ref>  
  
 
===Fire ecology=== <!--Fire tolerance, fire dependence, adaptive fire responses-->
 
===Fire ecology=== <!--Fire tolerance, fire dependence, adaptive fire responses-->
It thrives in the years post-fire. <ref name=har/> Lewis and Harshbarger found out that ''S. odora'' responded positively to a wide variety of long-term burning treatments, which responded the best to periodic summer and biennial summer burnings. <ref name=lewis> Lewis, C. E. and T. J. Harshbarger (1976). "Shrub and herbaceous vegetation after 20 years of prescribed burning in the South Carolina coastal plain." Journal of Range Management 29: 13-18. </ref>''S. odora'' was not present in the unburned control plot. <ref name=lewis/> After fire, ''S. odora'' var. ''chapmanii'' can regenerate by seedlings, clonal ramets, or resprouting. <ref name=mr04/> It is thought that timing of fires may affect subsequent flowering. Flowering occurred abundantly in most plots during the year following fire, but experienced a marked decline afterwards. <ref name=mr04/>
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It thrives in the years post-fire. <ref name=har/> Between fires, ''S. odora'' var. ''chapmanii'' can persist as suppressed ramets (a persistent bud bank), which can give it an advantage over competitors.<ref name=mr04/> ''S. odora'' has been shown to respond positively to a wide variety of long-term burning treatments, which the best responses to periodic summer and biennial summer burning.<ref name=lewis> Lewis, C. E. and T. J. Harshbarger (1976). "Shrub and herbaceous vegetation after 20 years of prescribed burning in the South Carolina coastal plain." Journal of Range Management 29: 13-18. </ref>''S. odora'' was not present in the unburned control plot of one experiment.<ref name=lewis/> After fire, ''S. odora'' var. ''chapmanii'' can regenerate by seed, clonal ramets, or resprouting.<ref name=mr04/> It is thought that timing of fires may affect subsequent flowering. Flowering occurred abundantly in most plots during the year following fire, but experienced a marked decline afterwards.<ref name=mr04/>
  
 
===Pollination===
 
===Pollination===
The following Hymenoptera families and species were observed visiting flowers of ''Solidago odora'' at Archbold Biological Station. <ref name=dey> Deyrup, M.A. and N.D. 2015. Database of observations of Hymenoptera visitations to flowers of plants on Archbold Biological Station, Florida, USA. </ref>
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The following Hymenoptera families and species were observed visiting flowers of ''Solidago odora'' at Archbold Biological Station.<ref name=dey> Deyrup, M.A. and N.D. 2015. Database of observations of Hymenoptera visitations to flowers of plants on Archbold Biological Station, Florida, USA. </ref>
  
 
Apidae:  ''Apis mellifera, Bombus impatiens, Nomada fervida, Xylocopa virginica krombeini''
 
Apidae:  ''Apis mellifera, Bombus impatiens, Nomada fervida, Xylocopa virginica krombeini''

Latest revision as of 10:24, 23 July 2020

Solidago odora
Solidago odora Gil.jpg
Photo was taken by Gil Nelson
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class: Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae ⁄ Compositae
Genus: Solidago
Species: S. odora
Binomial name
Solidago odora
Aiton
SOLI ODOR dist.jpg
Natural range of Solidago odora from USDA NRCS Plants Database.

Common names: Anisescented goldenrod, Sweet goldenrod, Licorice goldenrod

Taxonomic notes

Synonyms: Solidago odora var. odora; S. odora ssp. odora

Description

A description of Solidago odora is provided in The Flora of North America.

Distribution

Ecology

Habitat

In the Coastal Plain region, S. odora can be found in sandhills, slashpine savannas, longleaf pine-scrub oak ridges, loblolly pine-sweetgum stands, longleaf pine-wiregrass sand ridges, depression marshes, edges of wetlands, sand dunes, live oak woodlands,[1] annually burned pinelands. [2] [3] [1] xeric areas,[4] longleaf pine savannas,[5] [1] and scrub communities. [1] [6] It can also be found in cut over fields, disturbed savannas, bulldozed pines, old fields, cut and slashed slash pine forests, vacant beach lots, cut over sandridges,[1] and roadsides.[2] [1] Soils include sandy loam, loamy sand, sandy clay, red sandy clay, and sandy peat.[5] [1] As well, it is considered to be indicative of non-agricultural history sites of frequently burned longleaf pine habitats.[7] S. odora responds negatively to agricultural-based soil disturbance in South Carolina coastal plains communities.[8] When exposed to soil disturbance by military training in West Georgia, S. odora responds negatively by way of absence.[9] It also responds negatively to soil disturbance by agriculture in Southwest Georgia.[10]

Associated species include Liatris, Panicum, Leptoloma cognata, Pityopsis graminifolia, Quercus minima, Q. laevis, Phyla nodiflora, Solidago puberula, Asclepias, Scutellaria floridana, Balduina, and Sporobolus. [1]

Solidago odora var. odora is frequent and abundant in the Panhandle Xeric Sandhills community type and is an indicator species for the Clayhill Longleaf Woodlands community type as described in Carr et al. (2010).[11]

Solidago odora var. chapmanii is an indicator species for the Xeric Flathills community type as described in Carr et al. (2010).[12]

Phenology

S. odora has been observed to flower in January and March through November and fruit June through November.[1][13] S. odora var. chapmanii often blooms in late summer and fall (July through October), though some bloom in spring. [6]

Seed dispersal

This species is thought to be dispersed by wind. [14]

Seed bank and germination

S. odora var. chapmanii does not seem to form a large persistent seed bank.[6] However, S. odora has been shown to persist in the seedbank for at least two years.[15]

Fire ecology

It thrives in the years post-fire. [4] Between fires, S. odora var. chapmanii can persist as suppressed ramets (a persistent bud bank), which can give it an advantage over competitors.[6] S. odora has been shown to respond positively to a wide variety of long-term burning treatments, which the best responses to periodic summer and biennial summer burning.[16]S. odora was not present in the unburned control plot of one experiment.[16] After fire, S. odora var. chapmanii can regenerate by seed, clonal ramets, or resprouting.[6] It is thought that timing of fires may affect subsequent flowering. Flowering occurred abundantly in most plots during the year following fire, but experienced a marked decline afterwards.[6]

Pollination

The following Hymenoptera families and species were observed visiting flowers of Solidago odora at Archbold Biological Station.[17]

Apidae: Apis mellifera, Bombus impatiens, Nomada fervida, Xylocopa virginica krombeini

Colletidae: Colletes mandibularis

Halictidae: Agapostemon splendens, Augochlorella aurata, Augochloropsis metallica, A. sumptuosa, Halictus poeyi, Lasioglossum coreopsis, L. nymphalis, L. placidensis, Sphecodes heraclei

Leucospidae: Leucospis slossonae, L. affinis, L. robertsoni, L. slossonae

Megachilidae: Anthidiellum perplexus, Coelioxys sayi, Dianthidium floridiense, Dolichostelis louisiae, Megachile albitarsis, M. mendica, M. texana

Pompilidae: Anoplius atrox, Paracyphonyx funereus

Sphecidae: Ammophila urnaria, Bembix sayi, Bicyrtes capnoptera, B. quadrifasciata, Cerceris blakei, C. flavofasciata floridensis, C. fumipennis, Ectemnius decemmaculatus tequesta, Isodontia auripes, I. exornata, Oxybelus decorosum, Palmodes dimidiatus, Philanthus ventilabris, Prionyx thomae, Stictiella serrata, Tachytes grisselli, T. guatemalensis, T. pepticus, T. validus

Vespidae: Eumenes fraternus, E. smithii, Euodynerus boscii boharti, E. megaera, Pachodinerus erynnis, Pachodynerus erynnis, Parancistrocerus salcularis rufulus, Pseudodynerus quadrisectus, Stenodynerus fundatiformis, S. histrionalis rufustus, S. lineatifrons, S. oculeus, S. pulvinatus surrufus, Zethus spinipes

Use by animals

Many herbivores, including certain species of beetles, moths, rodents, and rabbits, feed on S. odora var. chapmanii.[6] As well, common grasshoppers, including Melanopus angustipennis and grasshoppers in the subfamilies Melanoplinae and Cyrtacanthacridinae, were found to prefer Solidago odora compared to many other herbaceous species which may be due to the high nutrition in the plant. When exposed to herbivores, it was found to have an overall reduced biomass.[7] Deyrup observed these bees, Colletes mandibularis, Perdita graenicheri, Agapostemon splendens, Augochlorella aurata, Augochloropsis metallica, A. sumptuosa, Diialictus coreopsis, D. nymphalis, D. placidensis, Halictus ligatus, Sphecodes heraclei, Dianthidium floridiense, Megachile albitarsis, M. mendica, M. texana, Apis mellifera, on Solidago odora var. chapmanii.[18]

Conservation and management

Cultivation and restoration

Photo Gallery

References and notes

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 Florida State University Robert K. Godfrey Herbarium database. URL: http://herbarium.bio.fsu.edu. Last accessed: July 2015. Collectors: Travis MacClendon, Karen MacClendon, B. Boothe, M. Boothe, Bian Tan, Brenda Herring, Jame Amoroso, Loran C. Anderson, Gwynn W. Ramsey, R.K. Godfrey, R. S. Mitchell, Paul L. Redfearn, Jr., Angus Gholson, George R. Cooley, Richard J. Eaton, James D. Ray, Jr., R L Lazor, V. I. Sullivan, A. F. Clewell, R. Kral, H. E. Grelen, Gary R. Knight, R. A. Norris, R. Komarek, Cecil R Slaughter, S. W. Leonard, R. E. Perdue, Jr., Richard D. Houk, James D. Ray, Jr., Olga Lakela, Jackie Patman, Melanie R. Darst. States and Counties: Florida: Alachua, Calhoun, Clay, Columbia, Dixie, Escambia, Franklin, Gadsden, Gulf, Hernando, Highland, Hillsborough, Jackson, Jefferson, Leon, Liberty, Marion, Martin, Okaloosa, Osceola, Pasco, Pinellas, Polk, Santa Roasa, Seminole, St. Johns, St. Lucie, Suwannee, Taylor, Wakulla, Walton, Washington. Georgia: Camden, Grady, Thomas. Compiled by Tall Timbers Research Station and Land Conservancy.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Boerner, R. E. J. (1981). "Forest structure dynamics following wildfire and prescribed burning in the New Jersey pine barrens." American Midland Naturalist 105: 321-333.
  3. Brewer, J. S. and S. P. Cralle (2003). "Phosphorus addition reduces invasion of a longleaf pine savanna (southeastern USA) by a non-indigenous grass (Imperata cylindrica)." Plant Ecology 167: 237-245.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Harrod, J. C., M. E. Harmon, et al. (2000). "Post-fire succession and 20th century reduction in fire frequency on xeric southern Appalachian sites." Journal of Vegetation Science 11: 465-472.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Drewa, P. B., J. M. Thaxton, et al. (2006). "Responses of root-crown bearing shrubs to differences in fire regimes in Pinus palustris (Longleaf pine) savannas: exploring old-growth questions in second-growth systems." Applied Vegetation Science 9: 27-36.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 Menges, E. S. and R. B. Root (2004). "The life of a fire-adapted Florida goldenrod, Solidago odora var. chapmanii." American Midland Naturalist 151: 65-78.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Hahn, P. C. and J. L. Orrock (2015). "Land-use legacies and present fire regimes interact to mediate herbivory by altering the neighboring plant community." Oikos 124: 497-506.
  8. Brudvig, L.A., J.L. Orrock, E.I. Damschen, C.D. Collins, P.G. Hahn, W.B. Mattingly, J.W. Veldman, and J.L. Walker. (2014). Land-Use History and Contemporary Management Inform an Ecological Reference Model for Longleaf Pine Woodland Understory Plant Communities. PLoS ONE 9(1): e86604.
  9. Dale, V.H., S.C. Beyeler, and B. Jackson. (2002). Understory vegetation indicators of anthropogenic disturbance in longleaf pine forests at Fort Benning, Georgia, USA. Ecological Indicators 1(3):155-170.
  10. Hedman, C.W., S.L. Grace, and S.E. King. (2000). Vegetation composition and structure of southern coastal plain pine forests: an ecological comparison. Forest Ecology and Management 134:233-247.
  11. Carr, S.C., K.M. Robertson, and R.K. Peet. 2010. A vegetation classification of fire-dependent pinelands of Florida. Castanea 75:153-189.
  12. Carr, S.C., K.M. Robertson, and R.K. Peet. 2010. A vegetation classification of fire-dependent pinelands of Florida. Castanea 75:153-189.
  13. Nelson, G. PanFlora: Plant data for the eastern United States with emphasis on the Southeastern Coastal Plains, Florida, and the Florida Panhandle. www.gilnelson.com/PanFlora/ Accessed: 14 DEC 2016
  14. Kirkman, L. Katherine. Unpublished database of seed dispersal mode of plants found in Coastal Plain longleaf pine-grasslands of the Jones Ecological Research Center, Georgia.
  15. Coffey, K. L. and L. K. Kirkman (2006). "Seed germination strategies of species with restoration potential in a fire-maintained pine savanna." Natural Areas Journal 26: 289-299.
  16. 16.0 16.1 Lewis, C. E. and T. J. Harshbarger (1976). "Shrub and herbaceous vegetation after 20 years of prescribed burning in the South Carolina coastal plain." Journal of Range Management 29: 13-18.
  17. Deyrup, M.A. and N.D. 2015. Database of observations of Hymenoptera visitations to flowers of plants on Archbold Biological Station, Florida, USA.
  18. Deyrup, M. and L. Deyrup (2012). "The diversity of insects visiting flowers of saw palmetto (Arecaceae)." Florida Entomologist 95(3): 711-730.