Difference between revisions of "Agalinis fasciculata"

From Coastal Plain Plants Wiki
Jump to: navigation, search
(Pollination)
 
(70 intermediate revisions by 10 users not shown)
Line 18: Line 18:
 
}}
 
}}
  
Common names: Beach False Foxglove; Cluster-leaf Gerardia
+
Common names: Beach false foxglove; Cluster-leaf gerardia
 +
==Taxonomic notes==
 +
Synonyms: ''Gerardia fasciculata'' Elliott; ''Gerardia fasciculata'' ssp. ''typica''; ''Gerardia fasciculata'' ssp. ''peninsularis'' (Pennell) Pennell.<ref name="weakley">Weakley, A.S. 2015. Flora of the southern and mid-atlantic states. Working Draf of 21 May 2015. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.</ref>
  
==Taxonomic notes==
 
Synonym names: ''Gerardia fasciculata'' Elliott; ''A.'' ''fasciculata'' (Elliott) Rafinesque; ''Gerardia fasciculata'' ssp. ''typica'' – P; ''Gerardia fasciculata'' ssp. ''peninsularis'' (Pennell) Pennell 
 
 
==Description==  
 
==Description==  
 
<!-- Basic life history facts such as annual/perrenial, monoecious/dioecious, root morphology, seed type, etc. -->
 
<!-- Basic life history facts such as annual/perrenial, monoecious/dioecious, root morphology, seed type, etc. -->
Annual. Parasitic to the roots of grasses and other herbs. Leaves are opposite, linear to filiform, and sometimes will have tufts on the shoots. Flowers are showy, in terminal racemes; the calyx is 5-parted, the lobes are shorter than the tube; the corolla is 5-parted. The flowers are rose-lavender in color and are rarely white. There are usually 2 yellow lines and numerous purple spots in the throat on the tube. The tube is broad, campanulate, and the lobes are shorter than the tube. The throat is usually lanose at the base of the 2 upper corolla lobes. There are 4 stamens, didynamous, that include filaments and anthers that are also lanose. The stigmas are elongated. The capsules are globose or subglobose, loculicidal<ref name="radford">Radford, Albert E., Harry E. Ahles, and C. Ritchie Bell. Manual of the Vascular Flora of the Carolinas. 1964, 1968. The University of North Carolina Press. 960. Print.</ref>.
+
''Agalinis fasciculata'' is a light yellow-green annual plant that is parasitic to the roots of grasses and other herbs. The stems are slender, stiff, scabrous, and branched from the upper half and grow between 30 - 90 cm tall. The leaves are opposite, narrowly linear to filiform growing 5 - 15 mm long and 1 mm wide, rough to the touch (scabrous) and sometimes will have tufts on the shoots.<ref name="radford"/>  
  
The stems are similar to ''Agalinis purpurea'', but instead are scabrous to scaberulous (not puberulent). Flowers August to October<ref name="radford"/>.
+
The flowers are showy, in terminal racemes with 5 sepals and 5 rose-lavender or (rarely) white petals; the petal lobes are shorter than the broad, bell-shaped 2 - 3 mm tube. There are usually 2 yellow lines and numerous purple spots in the throat on the tube. The throat is usually lanose (covered in wooly hairs) at the base of the 2 upper petal lobes. There are 4 stamens, didynamous, that include filaments and anthers that are also lanose. The stigmas are elongated. The capsules (dry fruit) are globose or subglobose and will open in a loculicidal (split down the length) fashion.<ref name="radford">Radford, Albert E., Harry E. Ahles, and C. Ritchie Bell. Manual of the Vascular Flora of the Carolinas. 1964, 1968. The University of North Carolina Press. 960. Print.</ref>
  
 
==Distribution==
 
==Distribution==
It is common in all of Florida. Found from: west to Texas, north to North Carolina<ref name="hall">Hall, David W. Illustrated Plants of Florida and the Coastal Plain: based on the collections of Leland and Lucy Baltzell. 1993. A Maupin House Book. Gainesville. 341. Print.</ref>.
+
This species of ''Agalinis'' is common in all of Florida and is found west to Texas and north to North Carolina.<ref name="hall">Hall, David W. Illustrated Plants of Florida and the Coastal Plain: based on the collections of Leland and Lucy Baltzell. 1993. A Maupin House Book. Gainesville. 341. Print.</ref>
  
 
==Ecology==
 
==Ecology==
 
===Habitat=== <!--Natural communities, human disturbed habitats, topography, hydrology, soils, light, fire regime requirements for removal of competition, etc.-->
 
===Habitat=== <!--Natural communities, human disturbed habitats, topography, hydrology, soils, light, fire regime requirements for removal of competition, etc.-->
It can be found in frequently burned pine sandhills (Entisols), flatwoods (Spodosols), upland pine communities and shortleaf pine-oak-hickory woodlands (Ultisols), as well as calcareous glades, sandhills, coastal scrubs, margins of ponds, lakes, depressions, marshes, and wet meadows, and on the borders of dunes<ref name="radford"/><ref name="fsu"/><ref name="musselman"/>. It occurs on a wide range of soil types from deep sands to loamy clay. It requires high light provided by frequently burned areas. It can occur on very disturbed soils, such those in railroad and power line rights-of-way, clear-cut areas, disturbed roadsides, dredged up sand, and site-prepped pine forests. It appears to be somewhat salt tolerant given its proximity to salt marshes and co-existence with ''Spartina bakari'' and other brackish-salt water plants<ref name="musselman">Musselman, L. J. and W. F. Mann, Jr (1979). "Agalinis fasciculata (Scrophulariaceae), a native parasitic weed on commercial tree species in the southeastern United States." American Midland Naturalist 101: 459-464.</ref><ref name="fsu">Florida State University Robert K. Godfrey Herbarium database. URL: http://herbarium.bio.fsu.edu/</ref>.
+
''A. fasciculata'' is a generalist as it can be found in frequently burned pine sandhills, flatwoods, upland pine communities, shortleaf pine-oak-hickory woodlands, calcareous glades, sandhills, coastal scrubs, margins of ponds, lakes, depressions, marshes, wet meadows, on the borders of dunes,<ref name="radford"/><ref name="fsu"/><ref name="musselman"/> and in pine rocklands.<ref name="Heaton 2016">Observation by Jake Antonio Heaton in Everglades National Park, Homstead, FL, June 11<sup>th</sup>, 2016, posted to Florida Flora and Ecosystematics Facebook Group June 12<sup>th</sup>, 2017.</ref>
  
Associated species includes  ''Bidens, Chrysopsis, Eupatorium, Schoenus nigricans, A. longespica, Houstonia nigricans, Rynchospora divergens, Scleria verticillata, Juniperus, Haplopappus, Rubus, Gnaphaluim, Eupatorium compositifolium, Baccharis, Andropogon, Xyris, Polygala, Solidago, Trichostema, Spartina bakeri, Myrica cerifera, Euthamia minor, Baccharis angustfolia, Hyptis, Lycopus, Drosera'', and ''Pinus palustris''<ref name="fsu"/> .
+
It occurs on a wide range of soil types from deep sands to loamy clay and on very disturbed soils, such as those in railroad and power line rights-of-way, clear-cut areas, disturbed roadsides, dredged up sand, and site-prepped pine forests. Additionally, it appears to be somewhat salt tolerant given its proximity to salt marshes and co-existence with ''Spartina bakari'' and other brackish-salt water plants<ref name="musselman">Musselman, L. J. and W. F. Mann, Jr (1979). "Agalinis fasciculata (Scrophulariaceae), a native parasitic weed on commercial tree species in the southeastern United States." American Midland Naturalist 101: 459-464.</ref><ref name="fsu">Florida State University Robert K. Godfrey Herbarium database. URL: http://herbarium.bio.fsu.edu. Last accessed: February 2019. Collectors: Frank Almeda, Loran C. Anderson, W Baker, Edwin L. Bridges, Jane Brockmann, Michael B. Brooks, L. Brouillet, J. M. Canne, Richard Carter, George R. Cooley, Richard J. Eaton, Mark A. Garland, R. K. Godfrey, J. M. Kane, Gary R. Knight, R. Komarek, R. Kral, O. Lakela, Robert L. Lazor, Sidney McDaniel, Richard S. Mitchell, Herbert Monoson, L. J. Musselman, Leon Neel, J. B. Nelson, Steve L. Orzell, James D. Ray, Jr., Paul O. Schallert, John C. Semple, and Cecil R Slaughter. States and counties: Florida: Bay, Bradford, Brevard, Calhoun, Collier, Dade, Duval, Escambia, Flagler, Franklin, Gulf, Hernando, Highlands, Hillsborough, Jackson, Lafayette, Leon, Levy, Liberty, Manatee, Monroe, Okaloosa, Putnam, Seminole, St Johns, Taylor, Wakulla, and Washington. Georgia: Grady and Thomas.</ref>
 +
 
 +
It is considered by some sources to be an early successional species in post agricultural succession,<ref name= "Engle"> Engle, D. M., et al. (2000). "Influence of late season fire on early successional vegetation of an Oklahoma prairie." Journal of Vegetation Science 11: 135-144. </ref> and is observed to do well in burned longleaf pine communities, but it experiences reduced occurrence under agricultural disturbance. Additionally, ''A. fasciculata'' shows resistance to regrowth in reestablished longleaf communities that were disturbed by agricultural practices.<ref>Brudvig, L.A. and E.I. Damchen. (2011). Land-use history, historical connectivity, and land management interact to determine longleaf pine woodland understory richness and composition. Ecography 34: 257-266.</ref>
 +
 
 +
Associated species include ''Schoenus nigricans'', ''Agalinis longespica'', ''Houstonia nigricans'', ''Rynchospora divergens'', ''Scleria verticillata'', ''Eupatorium compositifolium'', ''Baccharis'', ''Spartina bakeri'', ''[[Morella cerifera]]'', ''Euthamia minor'', ''Baccharis angustfolia'', and ''[[Pinus palustris]]''.<ref name="fsu"/>
  
 
===Phenology=== <!--Timing off flowering, fruiting, seed dispersal, and environmental triggers.  Cite PanFlora website if appropriate: http://www.gilnelson.com/PanFlora/ -->
 
===Phenology=== <!--Timing off flowering, fruiting, seed dispersal, and environmental triggers.  Cite PanFlora website if appropriate: http://www.gilnelson.com/PanFlora/ -->
Fall flowering ([http://herbarium.bio.fsu.edu/search-specimens.php?taxon_rank_sp=Agalinis%20fasciculata&fl=1&sort_by=gen,sp,isprk,isp&output_type=Thumbnails&show_accid=yes&show_fam=yes&show_sp=yes&show_collectors=yes&show_cid=yes&show_CollectionCodeID=yes&show_cdat=yes&show_cou=yes&show_stapro=yes&show_coupar=yes&show_nnp=yes&show_geolat=yes&show_geolon=yes&show_georefmethod=yes&show_geoprecision=yes&show_loc=yes&show_datum=yes&show_fl=yes&show_fr=yes&show_habitat=yes&show_fleppc=yes&show_statestatus=yes&show_fedstatus=yes&show_fedwet=yes&show_statewet=yes&show_origin=yes&show_inFlorida=yes&show_inPanhandle=yes&show_fnaitrack=yes&show_grank=yes&show_srank=yes&search=Search&Offset=0& Flowering Specimens of Species at FSU's Robert K. Godfrey Herbarium], [http://herb.valdosta.edu/search-specimens.php?search=Search&toggle_showhide=on&taxon_rank_sp=Agalinis+fasciculata&cdat_crit=%3D&cdat=&cdat2_crit=%3D&cdat2=&RecordCollectorHumanName=&RecordCollectorID=&cid=&accid=&cou=&habitat=&toggle_listed=on&fleppc=&sort_by=taxon.FullName&output_type=Thumbnails Thumbnails of all Specimens of Species at Valdosta State University Herbarium]).
+
It mostly flowers from summer to fall with peak inflorescence in September and October<ref>Florida State University Robert K. Godfrey Herbarium Specimen database search.[http://herbarium.bio.fsu.edu/search-specimens.php?taxon_rank_sp=Agalinis%20fasciculata&fl=1&sort_by=gen,sp,isprk,isp&output_type=Thumbnails&show_accid=yes&show_fam=yes&show_sp=yes&show_collectors=yes&show_cid=yes&show_CollectionCodeID=yes&show_cdat=yes&show_cou=yes&show_stapro=yes&show_coupar=yes&show_nnp=yes&show_geolat=yes&show_geolon=yes&show_georefmethod=yes&show_geoprecision=yes&show_loc=yes&show_datum=yes&show_fl=yes&show_fr=yes&show_habitat=yes&show_fleppc=yes&show_statestatus=yes&show_fedstatus=yes&show_fedwet=yes&show_statewet=yes&show_origin=yes&show_inFlorida=yes&show_inPanhandle=yes&show_fnaitrack=yes&show_grank=yes&show_srank=yes&search=Search&Offset=0& FSU's Robert K. Godfrey Herbarium]</ref><ref> Valdosta State University Herbarium database. [http://herb.valdosta.edu/search-specimens.php Valdosta State University Herbarium]</ref><ref name="radford"/><ref name=Nelson>Nelson, G.  [http://www.gilnelson.com/ PanFlora]: Plant data for the eastern United States with emphasis on the Southeastern Coastal Plains, Florida, and the Florida Panhandle. www.gilnelson.com/PanFlora/  Accessed:12/7/16</ref>; however, it has been observed to flower as early as May and late as December<ref name = Nelson/> and in the southern peninsula of Florida it can flower all year<ref name="wunderlin">Wunderlin, Richard P. and Bruce F. Hansen. Guide to the Vascular Plants of Florida. Second edition. 2003. University Press of Florida: Gainesville/Tallahassee/Tampa/Boca Raton/Pensacola/Orlando/Miami/Jacksonville/Ft. Myers. 546. Print.</ref>. Numerous small capsules each carrying hundreds of brown honeycombed seeds mature in late autumn.<ref name="musselman"/>
  
It flowers summer to fall; however in the southern peninsula of Florida, it can flower all year<ref name="wunderlin">Wunderlin, Richard P. and Bruce F. Hansen. Guide to the Vascular Plants of Florida. Second edition. 2003. University Press of Florida: Gainesville/Tallahassee/Tampa/Boca Raton/Pensacola/Orlando/Miami/Jacksonville/Ft. Myers. 546. Print.</ref>. Numerous small capsules each carrying hundreds of brown honeycombed seeds mature in late autumn<ref name="musselman"/>.
+
===Seed dispersal===
 +
This species is thought to be dispersed by gravity.<ref>Kirkman, L. Katherine. Unpublished database of seed dispersal mode of plants found in Coastal Plain longleaf pine-grasslands of the Jones Ecological Research Center, Georgia.</ref>
  
Michelle Smith observed ''Agalinis fasciculata'' flowering along Piney Z Lake in Tallahassee, Florida in September 2015 & flowering at Pebble Hill Plantation in Grady County, GA in October 2015.
+
===Seed bank and germination===
===Seed dispersal===
+
The seeds have physiological dormancy, respond to cold stratification, and germinate at 20/10 C in light.<ref name= "Baskin"> Baskin, Jerry M.; Baskin, Carol C.. 2002. Propagation protocol for production of Container (plug) Agalinis fasciculata (Ell.) Raf. plants University of Kentucky Lexington, Kentucky. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://NativePlantNetwork.org (accessed 2019/03/04). US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, National Center for Reforestation, Nurseries, and Genetic Resources.</ref>
According to Kay Kirkman, a plant ecologist, this species disperses by gravity. <ref name="KK"> Kay Kirkman, unpublished data, 2015. </ref>
 
<!--===Seed bank and germination===-->
 
<!--===Fire ecology===--><!--Fire tolerance, fire dependence, adaptive fire responses-->
 
  
===Pollination===
+
===Fire ecology===<!--Fire tolerance, fire dependence, adaptive fire responses-->
The following Hymenoptera families and species were observed visiting flowers of ''Agalinis fasciculata'' at Archbold Biological Station (Deyrup 2015):  
+
''A. fasciculata'' requires high light provided by frequently burned areas,<ref name= "Mehlman"> Mehlman, D. W. (1992). "Effects of fire on plant community composition of North Florida second growth pineland." Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 119(4): 376-383. </ref> and populations persist through repeated annual burns.<ref>Robertson, K.M. Unpublished data collected from Pebble Hill Fire Plots, Pebble Hill Plantation, Thomasville, Georgia.</ref><ref>Glitzenstein, J. S., D. R. Streng, R. E. Masters, K. M. Robertson and S. M. Hermann 2012. Fire-frequency effects on vegetation in north Florida pinelands: Another look at the long-term Stoddard Fire Research Plots at Tall Timbers Research Station. Forest Ecology and Management 264: 197-209.</ref>
 +
<!--===Pollination===-->
  
Colletidae: ''Hylaeus confluens''  
+
===Pollination and use by animals===
 +
''Agalinis fasciculata'' has been observed being visited by plasterer bees such as ''Hylaeus confluens'' (family Colletidae), sweat bees such as ''Augochlorella gratiosa'' (family Halictidae), leafcutting bees such as ''Megachile albitarsis'' (family Megachilidae),<ref name="Deyrup"> Deyrup, M.A. 2015. Database of observations of Hymenoptera visitations to flowering plants on Archbold Biological Station, Florida, USA.</ref> and ground-nesting bees such as ''Perdita gerardiae'' (family Andrenidae).<ref>Discoverlife.org [https://www.discoverlife.org/20/q?search=Bidens+albaDiscoverlife.org|Discoverlife.org]</ref> Other species of ''Agalinis'', including this one, host larvae of the common buckeye butterfly (''Junonia coenia'') in Florida.<ref name="Hammer 2016">Observation by Roger Hammer in Silver Springs State Park, Marion County, FL. September 2016, posted to Florida Flora and Ecosystematics Facebook Group August 4, 2017.</ref>
 +
<!--===Diseases and parasites===-->
  
Halictidae: ''Augochlorella gratiosa''  
+
==Conservation, cultivation, and restoration==
 +
''A. fasciculata'' is listed as endangered in the state of Maryland and is listed as rare in the state of New York.<ref name= "USDA"> USDA Plants Database URL: https://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=ANGE </ref>
  
Megachilidae: ''Megachile albitarsis''
+
==Cultural use==
<!--===Use by animals===--><!--Herbivory, granivory, insect hosting, etc.-->
 
<!--===Diseases and parasites===-->
 
  
==Conservation and Management==
+
==Photo gallery==
==Cultivation and restoration==
 
==Photo Gallery==
 
 
<gallery widths=180px>
 
<gallery widths=180px>
  
Line 67: Line 69:
  
 
File:Agalinis fasciculata 2_MSmith_Sept 2015.jpg| <center> Leaves of ''Agalinis fasciculata'' <p> Photo by Michelle Smith </p><p> Leon County, FL
 
File:Agalinis fasciculata 2_MSmith_Sept 2015.jpg| <center> Leaves of ''Agalinis fasciculata'' <p> Photo by Michelle Smith </p><p> Leon County, FL
 
 
</nowiki></gallery>
 
</nowiki></gallery>
  
 
==References and notes==
 
==References and notes==
Deyrup, M.A. 2015. Database of observations of Hymenoptera visitations to flowering plants on Archbold Biological Station, Florida, USA.
 

Latest revision as of 15:32, 23 July 2021

Agalinis fasciculata
Agalinis fasciculata Gil.jpg
Photo was taken by Gil Nelson
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta - Flowering plants
Class: Magnoliopsida - Dicotyledons
Order: Lamiales
Family: Orobancheaceae
Genus: Agalinis
Species: A. fasciculata
Binomial name
Agalinis fasciculata
(Elliott) Raf.
AGAL FASC dist.jpg
Natural range of Agalinis fasciculata from USDA NRCS Plants Database.

Common names: Beach false foxglove; Cluster-leaf gerardia

Taxonomic notes

Synonyms: Gerardia fasciculata Elliott; Gerardia fasciculata ssp. typica; Gerardia fasciculata ssp. peninsularis (Pennell) Pennell.[1]

Description

Agalinis fasciculata is a light yellow-green annual plant that is parasitic to the roots of grasses and other herbs. The stems are slender, stiff, scabrous, and branched from the upper half and grow between 30 - 90 cm tall. The leaves are opposite, narrowly linear to filiform growing 5 - 15 mm long and 1 mm wide, rough to the touch (scabrous) and sometimes will have tufts on the shoots.[2]

The flowers are showy, in terminal racemes with 5 sepals and 5 rose-lavender or (rarely) white petals; the petal lobes are shorter than the broad, bell-shaped 2 - 3 mm tube. There are usually 2 yellow lines and numerous purple spots in the throat on the tube. The throat is usually lanose (covered in wooly hairs) at the base of the 2 upper petal lobes. There are 4 stamens, didynamous, that include filaments and anthers that are also lanose. The stigmas are elongated. The capsules (dry fruit) are globose or subglobose and will open in a loculicidal (split down the length) fashion.[2]

Distribution

This species of Agalinis is common in all of Florida and is found west to Texas and north to North Carolina.[3]

Ecology

Habitat

A. fasciculata is a generalist as it can be found in frequently burned pine sandhills, flatwoods, upland pine communities, shortleaf pine-oak-hickory woodlands, calcareous glades, sandhills, coastal scrubs, margins of ponds, lakes, depressions, marshes, wet meadows, on the borders of dunes,[2][4][5] and in pine rocklands.[6]

It occurs on a wide range of soil types from deep sands to loamy clay and on very disturbed soils, such as those in railroad and power line rights-of-way, clear-cut areas, disturbed roadsides, dredged up sand, and site-prepped pine forests. Additionally, it appears to be somewhat salt tolerant given its proximity to salt marshes and co-existence with Spartina bakari and other brackish-salt water plants[5][4]

It is considered by some sources to be an early successional species in post agricultural succession,[7] and is observed to do well in burned longleaf pine communities, but it experiences reduced occurrence under agricultural disturbance. Additionally, A. fasciculata shows resistance to regrowth in reestablished longleaf communities that were disturbed by agricultural practices.[8]

Associated species include Schoenus nigricans, Agalinis longespica, Houstonia nigricans, Rynchospora divergens, Scleria verticillata, Eupatorium compositifolium, Baccharis, Spartina bakeri, Morella cerifera, Euthamia minor, Baccharis angustfolia, and Pinus palustris.[4]

Phenology

It mostly flowers from summer to fall with peak inflorescence in September and October[9][10][2][11]; however, it has been observed to flower as early as May and late as December[11] and in the southern peninsula of Florida it can flower all year[12]. Numerous small capsules each carrying hundreds of brown honeycombed seeds mature in late autumn.[5]

Seed dispersal

This species is thought to be dispersed by gravity.[13]

Seed bank and germination

The seeds have physiological dormancy, respond to cold stratification, and germinate at 20/10 C in light.[14]

Fire ecology

A. fasciculata requires high light provided by frequently burned areas,[15] and populations persist through repeated annual burns.[16][17]

Pollination and use by animals

Agalinis fasciculata has been observed being visited by plasterer bees such as Hylaeus confluens (family Colletidae), sweat bees such as Augochlorella gratiosa (family Halictidae), leafcutting bees such as Megachile albitarsis (family Megachilidae),[18] and ground-nesting bees such as Perdita gerardiae (family Andrenidae).[19] Other species of Agalinis, including this one, host larvae of the common buckeye butterfly (Junonia coenia) in Florida.[20]

Conservation, cultivation, and restoration

A. fasciculata is listed as endangered in the state of Maryland and is listed as rare in the state of New York.[21]

Cultural use

Photo gallery

References and notes

  1. Weakley, A.S. 2015. Flora of the southern and mid-atlantic states. Working Draf of 21 May 2015. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Radford, Albert E., Harry E. Ahles, and C. Ritchie Bell. Manual of the Vascular Flora of the Carolinas. 1964, 1968. The University of North Carolina Press. 960. Print.
  3. Hall, David W. Illustrated Plants of Florida and the Coastal Plain: based on the collections of Leland and Lucy Baltzell. 1993. A Maupin House Book. Gainesville. 341. Print.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Florida State University Robert K. Godfrey Herbarium database. URL: http://herbarium.bio.fsu.edu. Last accessed: February 2019. Collectors: Frank Almeda, Loran C. Anderson, W Baker, Edwin L. Bridges, Jane Brockmann, Michael B. Brooks, L. Brouillet, J. M. Canne, Richard Carter, George R. Cooley, Richard J. Eaton, Mark A. Garland, R. K. Godfrey, J. M. Kane, Gary R. Knight, R. Komarek, R. Kral, O. Lakela, Robert L. Lazor, Sidney McDaniel, Richard S. Mitchell, Herbert Monoson, L. J. Musselman, Leon Neel, J. B. Nelson, Steve L. Orzell, James D. Ray, Jr., Paul O. Schallert, John C. Semple, and Cecil R Slaughter. States and counties: Florida: Bay, Bradford, Brevard, Calhoun, Collier, Dade, Duval, Escambia, Flagler, Franklin, Gulf, Hernando, Highlands, Hillsborough, Jackson, Lafayette, Leon, Levy, Liberty, Manatee, Monroe, Okaloosa, Putnam, Seminole, St Johns, Taylor, Wakulla, and Washington. Georgia: Grady and Thomas.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Musselman, L. J. and W. F. Mann, Jr (1979). "Agalinis fasciculata (Scrophulariaceae), a native parasitic weed on commercial tree species in the southeastern United States." American Midland Naturalist 101: 459-464.
  6. Observation by Jake Antonio Heaton in Everglades National Park, Homstead, FL, June 11th, 2016, posted to Florida Flora and Ecosystematics Facebook Group June 12th, 2017.
  7. Engle, D. M., et al. (2000). "Influence of late season fire on early successional vegetation of an Oklahoma prairie." Journal of Vegetation Science 11: 135-144.
  8. Brudvig, L.A. and E.I. Damchen. (2011). Land-use history, historical connectivity, and land management interact to determine longleaf pine woodland understory richness and composition. Ecography 34: 257-266.
  9. Florida State University Robert K. Godfrey Herbarium Specimen database search.FSU's Robert K. Godfrey Herbarium
  10. Valdosta State University Herbarium database. Valdosta State University Herbarium
  11. 11.0 11.1 Nelson, G. PanFlora: Plant data for the eastern United States with emphasis on the Southeastern Coastal Plains, Florida, and the Florida Panhandle. www.gilnelson.com/PanFlora/ Accessed:12/7/16
  12. Wunderlin, Richard P. and Bruce F. Hansen. Guide to the Vascular Plants of Florida. Second edition. 2003. University Press of Florida: Gainesville/Tallahassee/Tampa/Boca Raton/Pensacola/Orlando/Miami/Jacksonville/Ft. Myers. 546. Print.
  13. Kirkman, L. Katherine. Unpublished database of seed dispersal mode of plants found in Coastal Plain longleaf pine-grasslands of the Jones Ecological Research Center, Georgia.
  14. Baskin, Jerry M.; Baskin, Carol C.. 2002. Propagation protocol for production of Container (plug) Agalinis fasciculata (Ell.) Raf. plants University of Kentucky Lexington, Kentucky. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://NativePlantNetwork.org (accessed 2019/03/04). US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, National Center for Reforestation, Nurseries, and Genetic Resources.
  15. Mehlman, D. W. (1992). "Effects of fire on plant community composition of North Florida second growth pineland." Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 119(4): 376-383.
  16. Robertson, K.M. Unpublished data collected from Pebble Hill Fire Plots, Pebble Hill Plantation, Thomasville, Georgia.
  17. Glitzenstein, J. S., D. R. Streng, R. E. Masters, K. M. Robertson and S. M. Hermann 2012. Fire-frequency effects on vegetation in north Florida pinelands: Another look at the long-term Stoddard Fire Research Plots at Tall Timbers Research Station. Forest Ecology and Management 264: 197-209.
  18. Deyrup, M.A. 2015. Database of observations of Hymenoptera visitations to flowering plants on Archbold Biological Station, Florida, USA.
  19. Discoverlife.org [1]
  20. Observation by Roger Hammer in Silver Springs State Park, Marion County, FL. September 2016, posted to Florida Flora and Ecosystematics Facebook Group August 4, 2017.
  21. USDA Plants Database URL: https://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=ANGE